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is slain by some of the neighbors. The coyote had taught her how she might change her form into that of a bear, and in this disguise she slays her brothers, with the exception of the youngest, who slays her. The members of her body, which he scatters in the four directions, are changed into bears of various kinds.
THE FLOOD, “A flood, destroying all the animals and inhabitants of the earth, is attributed to the sun. The Slayer of the Monsters and his brother, again journey to the sun in quest of riches which their father had promised. He grants them on condition that they slay all the inhabitants on the earth for him. Which condition they finally agree to. The sun then causes it to hail and rain for twelve days and nights, so that the waters covered the highest peaks. The Holy People, however, had hurriedly carried many of the inhabitants of the earth to a place of safety, and their descendants now people the earth. The waters were removed by the heat of the sun, but the traces of that flood are yet visible throughout the Navaho country.
THE CHANTS. “The origin of Navaho chants is more or less a subject of conjecture and uncertainty, though the native theory is by no means favorable to their foreign origin. But leaving the question of origin aside, the subject of Navaho chants is, we believe, sufficiently intricate and varied to be of absorbing interest to the lover of folklore, as it is practically virgin soil, offering unlimited
possibilities. Wonderful results have indeed been achieved by such eminent students as Dr. W. Matthews, U. S. A., and A. M. Stephen, whose published and unpublished works have been of valued assistance. Yet a glance at the subjoined list of chants should suggest that comparatively little has as yet been achieved by way of offering a comprehensive study of Navaho mythology which, in reality, forms the basis and ritual for the chants, since the origin and motive of each chant is based upon its own peculiar legend. And it must be a cause for regret that very few of the singers now living in the tribe are conversant with the chant legends, and, as a matter of record, are very indifferent to acquire such information. In consequence, many of the chants are becoming extinct, and the singers conversant with legends, songs and prayers are fast disappearing without a possibility of filling such vacancies. It is also well established that much singing and exorcising are continuously practiced by a class of inferior and ignorant apprentices, whom the Navaho designate as azaoniligi, who offer a mouthful, implying that they make a few prayersticks accompanied by a song or two. Then, too, much of this material is subject for dispute, especially among that set of singers who fabricate legends to suit their own pretensions. Hence, the extinction of the existing and more difficult chants is conceded as inevitable by the remnant of conservative and studious members of the chant lodges, for want of proper pupils. Efforts are consequently being made to obtain a complete account of the various legends with a view of supplementing those already existing,
such as the night and mountain chants, by Dr. Matthews.
“The various chants may properly be divided into such as do not deal directly with the yei, or Gods, and such as originated with and from the Gods.
“Among the first class, or earlier chants, the ‘moving upward,' forms the basis for the others, as its beginning is with the lower worlds, continuing with the emergence from them up to the time of the creation and dispersion of the Gods. The order of the chants would be about as follows:
“The 'moving upward,' a chant which in its various forms is still largely in demand. It is often designated as the ceremony for dispelling witchcraft.
“The chant ‘for dispelling foreign enemies,' more popularly known as 'the war dance.'
“The rite of the godmen, which was extensively in demand on raids and in war, though at present rarely in use.
“The rite for dispelling monsters. This is also referred to as the blackening against witches or native enemies,' in distinction to 'the blackening against foreign enemies,' as the Utes, Comanches, Americans, and the like. The two are war dances, though the blackening against foreign enemies,' is ordinarily meant when speaking of a war dance. As both are branches of the 'moving upward,' and the monsters figure largely in this rite, the designation ‘native enemies,’ is not far fetched.
“The renewal' and 'rite of benediction,' is essential to every Navaho chant. Accordingly,
the nine night ceremonies set one night aside for this blessing, which is referred to as the vigil, while the five and one night ceremonies subsequently require a special set of songs for their completion. Outside of its connection with the chants, it appears as a one night ceremony of blessing upon the hogan, the members of the family, their chattel and real estate, their crops and occupations, such as weaving and singing, their propensities to greed, at the nubile ceremony, or the birth of a child, the dedication of a new set of masks, for the purification of the ceremonial paraphernalia, in fact, for almost any phase of domestic life.
“The rite for dispelling the darts of the males, such as lightning, reptiles, and the like.
“The .owl chant,' which is not in vogue.
"The Navaho 'wind chant,' is much in use. The winds are personified and injurious.
"The 'coyote chant,' is disappearing. The rite for the removal of mania and prostitution, which is part of it, is still in vogue.
“The 'feather chant,' is sometimes in demand. The requisites, however, in the shape of numerous baskets, buckskins, and the like treasure, as well as the great amount of labor entailed in the preparation of numerous prayersticks, do not add to its popularity.
"The 'water chant,' is not mentioned frequently.
“The 'corral rite,' for corralling antelope and deer, was largely in use at the chase at large, which has subsided at present.
“The female branch of the “lightning chant, is still in vogue.
“The rite for trapping eagle, the 'Eagle or bead chant,' is also in demand.
“The other chants, which begin after those just mentioned (or, rather, after the emergence), are usually designated as 'the happenings of the Holy Ones,' as they relate largely to the yei, or Gods.
“The 'branch mountain chant of the maiden becoming a bear,' (the mountain chant of Dr. Matthews). This, with the chant of beauty (relating the metamorphoses of the bear and copperhead, by which they inveigle two beautiful maidens into marriage with them), are designated as chants of the same legendary branch, which finally meet again.
“The night chant branch.'
“The ‘feather shaft dance,' which is often designated as the ‘knife chant,' or 'life chant.'
“The 'branch of the mountain chant of those sending forth darts.'
“The ‘bead' or 'eagle chant of the rock promontory. This is the bead chant partly described in the Legends of Dr. Matthews, while the bead chant mentioned above, begins with the monster eagle of Shiprock.
“The 'one day song,' which is so called from the legend in which a person is slain by a bear and revived in one day. This is extinct.
“In addition to these, the 'red ant chant,' and the 'big god chant,' are much in vogue. The latter is often designated as the 'tooth-gum wind chant.