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VOL. IV.

Page

I

I 2

St. John

78 118

Historr of the British Settlements in America
Upper and Lower Canada

2 Cape. Breton New-Britain

17 Nova Scotia

39

44 Newfoundland

45 Greenland

47 Spanish Dominions in North-America

65

ib. East and Weft-Florida Louisiana

70 Mexico, or New-Spain View of South-America Spanish Dominions in South-America

119 Terra Firma

ib. Peru

137 Chili

162 Paraguay, or La Plata

168 Observations on the Government, Trade, &c. of SouthAmerica

172 Portuguese Settlement in South-America

204 Brasil

ib. French Polesions in South-America

213 Cayenne

ib. Dutch Polisions in South-America

216 Surinam

ib. Aboriginal America Amazonia

ib. Patagonia

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222

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The British dominion in America extending over a trałt of cours

HE try called, for the purpose of distinction, by the general name of British America, comprehends the vast and unknown extent of country, bounded south, by the United States of America, and the Atlantic ocean; eaft, by the same ocean and Davis's Straits, which divide it from Greenland ; extending north to the northern limits of the Hud. son's Bay charter; and westward to an unknown extent-lying between 42° 30' and 7° north latitude ; and between 50° and 1050 weł long. from Greenwich; and between 250 east and 30° west long. from Philadelphia.

It is divided into four provinces, viz. 1. Upper Canada :2. Lower Canada, to which is annexed New Britain, or the country lying round Hudson's Bay, and the Island of Cape Breton ;—3. New Brunswick , and 4. Nova Scotia, to which is annexed the Island of St. John'so-Be. fides these there is the land of Newfoundland, which is governed by the admiral for the time being, and two lieutenant governors, who refide at Placentia and St. John's.- - The troops stationed at Newfound. land, however, are subject to the orders of the Governor-general of the four British Provinces. Of each of these provinces our intention is to enter into a brief description.

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PROVINCES

OF

UPPER AND LOWER CANADA.

SITUATION, EXTENT, AND BOUNDARIES.

The provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, constituted by act of parliament in 1791, comprehend the territory heretofore called Canada, or the Province of Quebec ; situated between 42° 30' and 500 north latitude, and 610 and 810 weft longitude from London ; or 14° cast, and 6° west from Philadelphia. Their length is about fix hundred miles, and their breadth five hundred and fifty.

These provinces are bounded on the north, by New Britain; on the east, by the Gulpħ of St. Lawrence, and part of the Province of New Brunswick; on the south-east and south, by the District of Main, New Hampshire, Vermont, New York, and the lakes: the western boundary is undefined. The Province of Upper Canada is the same as what is commonly called the Upper Country. It lies north of the great lakes, between the latitudes of 42° 30' and 50°, and is separated from New York by the river St. Lawrence, here called the Catasaqui, and the Lakes Ontario and Erie.

Lower Canada fies on both sides the rives St. Lawrence, between 619 and 719 W. lon. froin London ; and 45o and 52° N. lat. and is bounded south by New Brunswick, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York; and west by Upper Canada.

The line which divides Upper from Lower Canada commences at a ftone boundary, on ihe north bank of the lake St. Francis, at the cove, west of Pointe au Bordet, in the liinit between the township of Lancafter and the Seigneurie of New Longuevil, running along the said fimit in the direction of north thirty-fous degrees welt, to the westernmost angle of the said Seigneurie of New Longuevil; thence along the north-wcitern boundary of the Seigneurie of Vandreuil, running north, twenty-five degrees east, until it Itsikes the Ottawas river; to ascend the said river into the lake Tomiscanning; and from the head of the faid lake by a line drawn due north, until it strikes the boundary line of Hudson's Bay, or New Britain. Upper Canada, to include all the territory to the westward and southward of the said line, to the utmost extent of the country known by the name of Canada.

AIR

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