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2*, t vessels of the said States, may, also, be so imported in Russian vessels, without paying other or higher duties or charges, of whatever kiud or denomination, levied in the name, or to the profit of the government, the local authorities, or of any private establishments whatsoever, than if the same merchandise or articles of commerce had been imported in vessels of the Uited Sta es of imerica.
ART. IV It is understood that the stipulations contained in the iwo prece. ding articles, are, to their full extent, applicable to Russian vessels aud iheir cargoes, arriving in the ports of the Uuited States of America; and reciprocally, to vesse is of the said States and their cargoes, arriving in the poris of ihe Empire of Russia, whe: her the said vessels clear direrily from the ports of the country lo which they respectively belong, or from the ports of any other foreign country.
ART. V. All kind of merchandise and articles of commerce, which may be lawfully exported from ihe ports of the United States of America in national vessels, way, also, le exported therefrom in Russian vessels without pay
ing other or bigher duties or charges, of whatever kind or denomination, levied in the name, or to the profil of the Government, the local authorities, or of any private establishments whatsoever, than if the same merchandise, or ar icles of commerce, had been exporied in vessels of the United States of America Avd reciprocally, all kind of merchandise and articles of commerce, which may be lawfully exported from the ports of the Empire of Russia in national vessels, may also be exported therefrom in vesseis of the
United S ates of America, without paying other or higher duties or charges of whatever kind or denomination, levied in the same, or to the profit of the Government, the local authorities, or of any private establishments whatsoever than is the same merchandise or arsicles of commercę nad been exported in Russian vessels.
ART. VI. No higher or other duties shall be imposed on the importation into the Uniled States of any arucle, the produce or manufacture or Russia ; and no higher or other duties shall be imposed on the importation into the Empire of Russia, of any article, the produce or manufacture of the United States, than are, or shall be, payable on the like article, being the produce or manu. facture of any other foreign country. Nor shall any prohibition be imposed on the iniporiation or exportation of any article the produce or manufacture | f the Unived States or of Russia, to, or from the ports of the United States, orio, or from the ports of the Russian Empire, which shall not equally extend to all other nations.
Art. VII. It is expressly understood that the preceding articles II, III, IV, V and VI, shall not be applicable to the coastwise navigation of either of the iwo countries, which each of the High Contracting Parties reserves exclusively t) itself.
ART. VIII. The two Contracting Parties shall have the liberty of having in their respective ports, Consuls, Vice Consuls, Agents and Commissaries, of their own appointment, who shall enjoy the same privileges and powers, as those of the most favored nations; but if any such Consul shall exercise commerce, they shall be submitted to the same laws and usages to which the private individuals of their nation are submitted, in the same place.
The Consuls, Vice Consuls, and Commercial Agents, shall have the right, as suchi, 10 sit as judges and arbitrators in such differences as may arise be: tween the captains and crews of the vessels belonging to the nation whose interests are committed to their charge, without the interference of the local au horities, unless the conduct of the crews, or of the captain, should disturb the order or tranquillity of the country, or the said Consuls, Vice Consuls, or Commercial Agents should reqnire their assistance to cause their decisions is be carried into effect or supported. It is, however, understood, that this species of juilgment or arbitration shall not deprive the contending parties of
coe vight they have to resort on their return, to the judicial authority of their
ART. IX The said Consu's, Vice Consuls, nod Commercial Agents, are authorized to require the assisiance of the local au horities, for the search, arrest, detention and imprisonmeni of the deserters from the ships of war and merchant vessels of their country. For this purpose they shall apply to the competent tribunals, jorges and officers, and shall, in writing, demand said deseriers, pioving by the exhibition of ihe registers of the vessels, the rolls of the crews, or by other official documents, that such individuals formed
part of the crews; and this reciamation being thus substantiated, the sur. render shall not be refused.
Such deserters, when arrested, shall be placed at the disposal of thc said Consuis, Vive Cousuls, or Commercial Agents, and pay be confineu in the
public prisons, at the request and cost of those who shail claim them, in order to be detained until the time when ibey shall be restored to the vessel to which they belonged, or sent back to their own country by a vessel of the same nation or any other vessel whaisoever. But if not sent back within four months, from the day of their arresi, they shall be set at liberi.y, and shall not be again arrested for tile sanie cause.
However, if he deserter should be found io have committed any crime or offence, his surrender may lie delayed unul the tribunal beiore which his case shall bé dt pendink, shall have pronounced its sentence, and such sentence shall have been carried into efiect.
ART X. The chizens and subjecis of each of the High Contracing Par. tirs shall have , ower to dispose of their personal youds within the jurisdiction of the other, by testament, dovation, or otherwise, and their representavives, being citizens or subjects of the other party, shall succeed in their said pero sonal gouds, whether by testament or ab intestalo, and may take possession thereof, either by themselves, or by others acting for them, and dispose of the same, ar will, paying to the profit of the respective Governments, such dues orly as the inhabitants of the country wherein the said goods are, shall be subject to pay in lile cases. Aud in case of the absence of the representa
tative, such care shall love taken of the said goods, as woult be taken of the goods of a native of the same country in like case, until the lawful owers may take measures for receiving them And if a question should in! ise anong several claimants as to winch of them said goods belong, the same shall be decided, finally, by the laws and judges of the land u berein the sand goods are And where, on the death of any personi holding real estate, with
in the terrories of one of the High Contracting Parties, such real estate would, by the laws of he land, descend on a citizen or subject of the other party, who by reason of alienage may be incapable of holding it, he shall be a sowed the time fixed by the laws of the country, and in case the fiws of thu: country actually force, may not have fixed any such ime, he shall then be allowed a reasonable tine io sell such real estate and to withdraw ant export the proceeds withoui molestation, and without paying to the profil of the respective Guveronent any other dues than those to which the mirabia
tants of the country wherein said real estate is situa ed, shall be sulijeci to pay, in lik cases. But this article shall not derogate, in any manner, from the force of the laws aiready published, or which may hereafier be published by His Majesty the Eniperor of ail the Russias, to prevent the emigration of bis stiljecis.
ART. XI, If either party shall, hereaster, grant to any other ration, any panicular favor in navigation or connerce, it shall, immediately, becowe Codmon to the other party, freely, where it is freely granted to such other dation, 01 on yie lving the same con pensations, whe. The grani is conditional. Art. XII. The present treat!, of which the efect shaji exiend, in like
10 shie Kingdom of Foland, so far as the same may be applicable thereto, shall continue in force until the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-nine ; and if one year before that day, one of the High Cootracting Parties, shall not have announced to the
other, by an official notification, its iniention to arrest the operation thereof, ti s ti eaty shall remain obligatory one year beyond that day, and so on, untiil the expiration of the year which shall commence after the date of a similar notification.
ART. XIII. The present treaty shall be approved and ratified by the President of the United States of America, by and with the advice and cousent of the senate of the said States, and by His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, and the ratifications shall be exchanged in the city of Washington within the space of one year, or sooner is possible.
Ti faith whereof, the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the present treaty, in duplicate, and affixed thereto the seals of their arms,
Done at Si Petersburg the sixth. (tighteenth) December, in the year of Grace one thousand eight hundred and thirty-two.
JAMES BUCHANAN. CHARLES. COMTE DE NESSELRODE.
SEPARATE ARTICLE. Certain relations of proximity and anterior engagements, having rendered it necessary for the Imperial' Ġovernment to regulate the commercial rela
tions of Russia with Prussia and the Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway by special stipulations, now actually in force, aud which may be renewed hereafter ; which stipulations are, in no manner, connected with the existing regulations for foreign commerce in general; the two Higb Contracing Parties, wishing to remove from their commercial relations every kind of amiguity or subject of discussion, have agreed, that the special stipulations granted to the commerce of Prussia, and of Sweden and Norway, in consideration of equivalent advantages granted in these countries, by the one to the commerce of the Kingdom of Poland, and by the other to that of the Grand
Dutchy of Finland, shall not, in any wase, be invoked in favor of the relations of commerce and navigarion, sanciioned between the two High Contracting Parties by the present treaty.
The present separate article shall have the same force and value as if it were inserted, word for word, in the treaty. signed this day, and shall be ratified the same time.
In faith whereof, we, the undersigned, by virtue of our respective full powers, have signed the present separate article, and affixed there to the seals of our arms.
Done at St. Petersburg, the sixth, (eighteenth,) of December, in the year of Grace one thousand eighit hundred and thirty-two.
JAMES BUCHANAN: CHARLES, COMTE DE NESSELRODE:
TREATY WITH MEXICO. Treaty of Amity, Commerce and Navigation between the United States of America, and
the United Mexican States, concluded at Mexico April 5th 1831: and the respective ratificarions of the same were exchanged at Washington, on the fifth day of April, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-two, by Edward Livingston, Secretary of State of the United States of America, and Jose Montoya, Charge d'Affaires of the United Mexican States, on the part of their respective Governments.
The United States of America and the United Mexican States desiring to establish upon a firm basis the relations of friendship that so happily subşist between the two Republics have determined to fix in a clear and positive manner the rules which shall in future be religiously observed between both, by means of a treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation. For which important object, the President of the United States of America has appointed Anthony Butler, a citizen of the United States, and Charge d'Affaires of the United States of America near the United Mexican States, with full powers ; and the Vice Presi
dent of the United Mexican States in the exercise of the Executive power, having conferred like full powers on his Excellency Lucas Alaman,
Secretary of State for Home and Foreign Affairs, and his Excellency Raphael Mangino, Secretary of the Treasury, and the aforesaid Plenipotentiaries after having compared, and exchanged in due form their several powers as aforesaid, have agreed upon the following articks:
Art. 1. There shall be a firm, inviolable, and universal peace, and a true and sincere friendship between the United Statts of America and the United Mexican States in all the extent of their possessions and territories, and between their people and citizens respectively, withont distinction of persons or places.
Art. 11. The United States of America and the United Mexican States, designing to take for the basis of their agreement the most perfect equality and reciprocity, engage mu. tually not to grant any particular favor to other nations in respect of commerce and na
vigation, which shall not in mediately become common to the other party; who shali en Jjoy the same frcely, if the concession was freely made, or upon the same conditions, if the concession was conditional.
Art. III The citizens of the two countries respectively shall have liberty, freely and securely to come with their vessels and cargoes to all such places, ports, and rivers of the United Statesof America and of the United Mexican States, to which other foriegners are permited to coine: to enter into the same, and to remain and reside in any part of the said territories respectively; also, to hire and occupy houses and warehouses for th purpose of their cominerce, and to trade therein, in all sorts of product, manufactures, and merchandise; and, generally, the merchants and traders of each nation shall enjoy the most complete protection and security for their commerce.
And they shall not pay higher or other duties, imposts, or fees whatsoever, than those which the inost favored nations are or may be obliged to pay; and shall enjoy all the rights, privileges, and exemptions, with respect to navigation and commerce, which the citizens of the most favored nation do or may enjoy: buti subject always to the laws, usages, and statutes of the two countries respectively.
The liberty to enter and discharge the ressels of both nations of which this article treats, shall not be understood to authorize the coasting trade, which is permitted to National vessels only.
Art. IV. No higher or other duties shall be imposed on the importation into the United Mexican States of any article, the produce, growth, or manufacture of the United States of America, than those which the same or like articles, the produce, growth, or manufacture of any other foreign country do now or may bereafter pay; nor shall articlts, the produce, growth, or manufacture of the United Mexican States, be subject on their introduction into the United States of America, to higher or other duties than those which the same or like articles of any other foreign country do now or may hereafter pay:
Higher duties shall not be imposed in the respective States on the exportation of any article to the States of the other contracting Party, than those which are now or may bere after be paid on the exportation of the like articles to any other foreign country; nor shall any prohibition be established on the exportation or importation of any article, the produce, growth, or manufacture of the United States of America, or of the United Mexican States respectively, in either of them, which shall not in like manner be established with respect to other foreign countries.
Art. V. No higher or other duties or charges on account of tonnage, light or harbor dues, pilotage, salvage in case of damage or shipwreck, or any other local changes, shall be imposed in any of the ports of Mexico
on vessels of the United States of America, than those payable in the same ports by Mexican vessels ; nor in the ports of the United States of America, on Mexican vessels, than shall be payable in the same ports on Vessels of the United States of America.
Art. VI. The same duties shall be paid on the importation into the United Mexican States, of any article, the growth, produce, or manufacture of the United States of America, whether such importation shall be in Mexican vessels or in vessels of the United States of America ; and the same duties shall be paid on the importation into the United States of America, of any article, the growth, produce, or manufacture of Mexico, whether such importation shall be in vessels of the United States of America or in Mexican vessels.
The same duties shall be paid, and the same bounties and drawbacks allowed, on the exportation to Mexico of any articles, the growth, produce, or manufacture of the United States of America, whether such exportation shall be in Mexican vesst Is or in vesstio of the United States of Aine rica; and the same duties shall be paid, and the same bounties and drawbacks allowed, on the exportation of any articles, the growih, produce, or manutacture of Mexico, to the United Statt 3 of America, whether such exportation shall be in vesse is of the United States of America or Mexican vessels.
Art. VII. All merchants, captains, or command rs of vessels, and other citizens of the l'nited States of America, shall have full liberty in the United Mexican States to direct or manage themselves, their own affairs, or to commit them to the management of whomsoever they may think proper, either as broker, factor, agent, or interpreter ; nor sball they be ovliged to employ for the aforesaid purposes any other persons than those employed by Mexicans, nor to pay them higher salaries or remuneration than such as are in like cases paid by Mexicans; and absolute freedom shall be allowed in all cases to the l buyer and seller to bargain and fix the prices of any goods, wares, or merchandise impon.
ed into, or exported from, the United Mexican States, as they inay think proper ; observo ing the laws usages, and customs of the country. The citizens of Mexico shall enjoy the
same privileges in the States and Territories of the United States of America, being subject to the same conditions.
Art. VIII. The citizens of neither of the contracting parties shall be liable to any embargo, nor shall their vessels, cargoes, merchandise, or effects, be detained for any military expedition, nor for any public or private purpuse whatsoever, without a corresponding compansation.
Art. IX. The citizens of both countries, respectively, shall be exempt from compulsory servicc in the army or navy; nor shall they be subjected to any other charges, or contributions, or taxes, than such as are paid
by the citizens of the States in which they reside. Art. X. Whenever the citizens of either of the contracting parties shall be forced to seek refuge or asylum in the rivers, bays, ports, or dominions of the other with their vessels, whether Merchant or of war, public or private, through stress of weather, pursuit or enemies, they shall be received and treated with humanity, with the precau ions which may be deem-d expedient on the part of the respective Governments in order to avoid frand, giving to them all favor and protection for repairing their vessels, procuring provisions, and placing themselves in a situation to continue their voyage without obstacle or hindrance of any kind.
Art. XI. All vessels, merchandise, or effects, belonging to the citizens of one of the contracting parties, which may be captured by pirates, whether within the limits of its juris dictio', or on the high seas, and may be carried into or found in the rivers, bays, ports, of
domil ins of the other, shall be delivered up to the owners, they proving, in due and proper torin, their rights before the competent tribunal ; it being well understood that ibe claim shall be made within one year, counting from the capture of said vessels or merchandise, by the parties themselves, or their attorneys, or by the agents of the respective Governments.
Art. XII. When' any vessel belonging to the citizens of either of the contracting parties, shall be wrecked, foundered, or shall suffer any damage on the coasts or within the dominions of the other, there shall be given to it all the assistance and protection in the same nanner which is usual and customary with the vessels of the nation where the damage happens ; permitting them to unload the said vessel, if necessa. y, of its merchandise eificis, with the precautions'which may be deemed expedient on the part of the respective Governments, in order to avoid fraud, without exacting for it any duty, impost, or contribution whatever, uatil they be exportedl.
drt. XIII. In whatever relates to the succession of personal) estates, either by will or ab intestato (and the right of j disposai of such propórty, of whatever sort or denomination it may be, by saie, douation, exchange, or testament, or in any other manner wh tsoever the citizens of the two contracting parties shall enjoy, in their respective States and Territories, the same privileges, exemptions, liberties, and rights, as native citizens; and shall not be charged, in any of these respects, with other or higher duties or imposts, than thos which are now, or may hereafter be paid by the citizens of the Power in whose territories they may reside.
Art. xiv. Both the contracting parties promise and engage to give their special protection to the persons and property of the citizins of each other, of all occupations, who may be in their territories, subject to the jurisdiction of the one or of the other, transient or dwelling therein; leaving open and free to them the tribunais of justice for their judicial recourse, on the same terins which are usual and customary, with the natives or citizens of the country in which they may employ in defence of their rights, such advocates, solicitors, notaries, agents, and factors, as they may judg: proper, in all their trials al law; and citizens of either party, or their agents, shall enjoy, in every respect, the same rights and privileges, either in prosecuting or defending their rights of person or of property, as the citizens of the country where the cause may be tried.
Art. XV. The citizens of the United States of America, residing in the United Mexican Stats, shall enjoy in their houses, persons, and properties, the protection of the Govern. ment, with the most perfect security and liberty of conscience : they shali not be disturbed or mol sted, in any inanner, on account of their religion, so long as they respect the Constitution, the laws, and established usages of the country where they'reside ; and they shall also enjoy the privileve of buying the dead in places which now are, or may hereafter be assigned for that purpose; nor Shall the funerals or sepulchres of the dead be diso turbed in any manner, nor under any pretext.
The citizens of the United Mexican States shall enjoy, throughout all the States and Territorits of the Unit-d States of America, the same protection; and shall be allowed the free Exercise of their religion, in public or in private, either within their own houses, or in the chapels or places of worship set avart for that purpose.
Art. XVI. It shall be lawful for the citizens of the United States of America, and of the United Mexican States respectively, to sail with their vesseis with all manner of security and lib rty, no distinction being made who are the owners of the merchandise iaden thereon. froin any port to the places.of those who now are, or may hereafter be at enmity with the United States of America or with the United Mexican States. It shall likewise be lawful for the aforesaid citizens respectively to sail with their vessels and merchandise, before many