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tioned, and to trade with the same liberty and security from the places, ports, and havens of those who are enemies of both or either party, without any opposition or disturbance whatsoever, not only directly from the places of the enemy, before mentioned, to neutral places, but also from one place belonging to an enemy to another place belonging to an enemy,
whether they be under the jurisdiction of the same Government or under severai ; and it is bereby stipulated that free ships shall also give treedom to gouds; and that every thing shall
be deemed free and exempt which shall be found on board the vesse is belonging to the citizens of either of the contracting parties, although the whole lading orany port thereof should appertain to the enemies of either, contraband goods being always excepted. It is also agreed that the same liberty be extended to persons who are on board a free vessel, so that, although they be enemies to either party shall not be made prisoners, or taken out of that free vessel, unless they are soldiers, and in the actual service of the enemy. By the stipulation that the flag shall cover the property, the two contracting parties agree that this be so understood with respect to those powers who recognise this principle; but if either of the two contracting parties shall be at war with a third party, and the other neutral, the flag of the neutral shall cover the property of enemies whose Governments acknowledge this principle, and not of others.
Art. XVII. It is likewise agreed that in the case where the neutral flag of one of the concracting parties shall protect the property of the enemies of the other, by virtue of the above stipulation, it shall always be understood that the neutral property found on board such ene mies' vessels shall be held and considered as enemies' property, and as such shall be liable to detention and confiscation, except such property as was put on board such vessel before the declaration of war, or even afterwards if it were done without the knowledge of it: but the contracting parties agree that four months having elapsed after the declaration, their
citizens shall not plead ignorance thereof; on the contrary, if the flag of the neutral does not protect the enemy's property, in that case the goods and merchandises embarked in such enemy's vessel shall be free.
Art. XVIII. This liberty of commerce and navigation shall extend to all kinds of merchandize, excepting those only which are distinguished by the name of contraband; and under this nanie of contraband or prohibited goods, shall be comprehended, first, cannons, mortars, howitzers, swivels, blunderbusses, muskets, fusees, rifles, carbines, pistols, pikes, swords, sabres, lances, spears, halberts, hand granades, bombs, powder, matches, balls, and all other things belonging to the use of these arms: secondly, bucklers, helmets, breast-plates, coats of mail, infantry belts, and clothes made up in a military form, and for a military use; thirdly, cavalry belts and horses with their furniture; fourthly, and generally, all kinds of arms, and instruments of iron, steel, brass and copper or of any other materials manufactured, prepared and formed expressly to make war by sea or land.
Art. XIX. All other merchandise and things not comprehended in the articles of contraband expressly enumerated and classified as above, shail be held and considered as free and subjects of free and lawful commerce, so that they may be carried and transported in the freest manner by both the contracting parties, even to places belonging to an enemy excepting only those places which are at that time besieged or blockad d; and to avoid all doubt in that particular, it is declared that those places only are besit ged or blockaded, which are actually besieged or blockaded by a belligereut force capable of preventing the entry of the neutral,
Art. XX. The articles of contraband before enumerated and classified, which may be found in a vessel bound for the enemy's port, shall be subject to detention and confiscation, leaving free the rest of the cargo and the vessel, that the owners may dispose of them as they see proper. No vessels of either of the two nations shall be detained on the high seas on account of having on board articles of contraband, whenever the master, captain, or supercargo of said vessel will deliver up the articles of contraband to the captor, unless the
quantity of such articles be so great and of so large a bulk, that they cannot be received on board the capturing vessel without great inconvenience; but in this, and in all other cases
of just detention, the vessel detained shall be sent to the nearest convenient and safe port for trial and judgment, according to law.
Art. XXI. And, whereas, it frequently happens that vessels sail for a port or place belonging to an enemy without knowing that the same is besieged, blockaded, or invested, it is agreed that every vessel so situated may be turned away from such port or place, but shall not be detained; nor shall any part of her cargo, if not contraband, be confiscated, un
less, after warning of such blockade or investment from the commanding officer of the blocka ling force, she should again attempt to enter the aforesaid port; but she shall be permitted to go to any other port or place she may think proper. Nor shall any vessel of either of the contracting parties, that may have entered into such port before the same was actually besieg id, blockaded, or invested by the other, be restrained from quitting such place with her cargo; nor if found therein after the surrender, shall such vessel or her cargo be liable to confiscation, but she shall be restored to the owner thereof.
Art. XXII. In order to prevent all kinds of disorder in the visiting and examination of "he vessels and cargoes of both the contracting parties on the high seas, they have agreed, mutualiy, that, whenever a vessel of war, public or private, should meet with a neutral vfussel of the other contracting party, the first shall remain out of cannon shot, and may send his boat, with two or ihree men only, in order to execute the said examination of the Ipapers concerning thi ownership and cargo of the vessel, without causing the least ex
tortion, violence, or ill treatment, for which the commanders of the said armed vessels shall be responsible with their persons and property; and for this purpose the commanders of said private arned vessels shall, before receiving their commissions give sufficient security to answer for all the damages they may commit. And it is expressly agreed, that the neutral party shall in po case, be required to go on board the examining vessel for the purpose of exhibiting his papers, or for any other purpose whatsoever.
Art. XXIII. To avoid all kinds of vexation and abuse in the examination of papers relating to the ownership of vessels belonging to the citizens of the two contracting parties, they have agreed, and do agree that in case one of them should be engaged in war, the vessels belonging to the citizens of the other must be furnished with sea letters or passports, ex
pressing the name, property, and bulk of the vessel, and also the name and place of habitation of the master or commander of said vessel, in order that it may thereby appear that the said vessel really and truy belongs to the citizens of one of the contracting parties; they bave likewise agreed that such vessels being laden, besides the said sea-letters or passports, shall also be provided with certificates, containing the several particulars of the cargo, and the place whence the vessel sailed, so that it may be known whether any forbidden or contraband goods be on buard the same, which certificate shall be made out by the officers of the place whenc the vessel sailed, in the accustomed form: without which i'equisites, the said vessel may be detained to be adjudged by the competent tribunal, and may be declared legal prize, unless the said defect shall be satisfied or supplied by testimony entirely equivalent to ihe satisfaction of the competent tribunal.
Art. XXIV. It is further agreed, that the stipulations above expressed, relative to visiting the examination of vessels, shall apply only to those which sail without convoy; and when said vessels are under convoy, the verbal declaration of the commander of the convoy, or his word of honor that the vessels under his protection belong to the nation whose flag be carries, and when they are bound to an enemy's port, that they have no contraband goods on board, shall be sufficient.
Art. XXV. It is further agreed, that in all cases the established courts for prize causes, in the country to which the prizes may be conducted, shall alone take cognizance of them. And whenever such tribunal of either party shall pronounce judgment against any vessel, or property claimed by th citizens of the other party, the sentence or decree shall mention the reason or motives on which the same shall have been founded; and an authenticated copy of the sentence or de cree, in conformity with the laws and usages of the country, and of all the proceedings of the case, shall, if demanded, be delivered to the commander or agent of said vessel, without any delay, be paying the legal fees for the same.
Art. XXVI. For the greater security of ihe intercourse between the citizens of the United States of America and of the United Mexican States, it is agre I now for then, that if there should be at any time hereafter an interruption of the freedıy relations which now
exist, or a war unhappily break out between the two contractiug parties, there shall be allowed the terni of 'si: 'months to the merchants residing on the coast, and one year to
thos residing in the interior of the States and Territories of each other respectively, to a:range their business, dispos: of their eff-cts, or transport them wheresnever they may please, giving them a safe conduct to protect them to the port they may designate. l'hose citizens who may be established in the States a d lerritories aforesaid, exereising any other occupation or trade, shall be permitted to remain in the uninterrupted enjoyment of their liberty and property, so long ay they conduct themselves peaceabiy, and do not commit any offi-nce against the laws; and their goods and effects, of whatever class and condition they may be, shall not be subject to any embargo or sequestration whatever, nor to any charge nor tax
other than may be established upon similar goods and effects belonging to the citizens of the State in which they resiile respectively; nor shall the debts between individuals, nor moneys in the public funds or in publio or private banks, por shares in companies, be confiscated, embargoed, or detained.
Art. XXVII. Both the contractar naries being desirous of avoiding all inequality in relation to their public communication and official intercourse, have agreed and do agree to grant to the envoys, mjuisters, and other public agents, the same fayors, immunities, and exemptions which those of the most favored nation do or may enjoy, it being understood that whatever favors, immunities, or Privileges the United States of America or the United Mexi 'an States may find proper to give to the ministers and public agents of any other power, shal by the same act be extended to those of each of the contracting parties.
Art. XXVIII. In order that the cosuls and vice-consuls of the two contracting parties may enjoy the rights, prerogatives, and immu ities which belong to them by their character, they shall, before entering upon the -xercise of their functious, exhibit their coininission or pat nt in due firm to the Government to which they are accredited; and having obtained Their exequat r, they shali be held a considered as such by all the authorities, magistrates, and inhabitants of the consular district in which they reside. It is agreed likewise to receive and admit consuls and vicr-consuls in all tbe ports and places open to foreign coni.
merce, who shall enjoy therein all the righıs, prerogatives, and immunities of the consuls and vice-consuls of the most favored nation, each of the contracting parties remaining at liberty to exc pt those ports ar:d places in which the admission and residence of such con. nuis and vice-onsuls ipay not seem expedient.
Art. XXIX. It is ikewise agreed that the consnls, vicr-consuls, their secretaries, offic rs ind persons attached to the service of consuis, they not being citizens of the country
in which the consul resides, shall be exempt from all compulsory public service, and also from all kind of taxes, imposts and contributions levied specially on them, except those which they shall be obliged to pay on account of commerce or their property, to which the citizens and inhabitants, na ive and foreign, of the country in which they reside, are subject; being in every thing besides subject to the laws of their respective States. The archives and papers of the consulates shall be respected inviolably, and under no pretext whatever shall any magistrare seize, or in any way interfere with them.
Art. XXX. T'he said consuls shall have power to require the assistance of the authorities of the country, for the arrest, detention. and custody of deserters from the public and private vessels of their country; and for that purpose, they shall address themselves to the courts, judges, and officers competent, and shall de and the said deserters in writing, proving, by an exhibition of the register of the vessel, or ship's roll, or other public documents, that the man or men demanded were part of said crews; and on this demand so proved, (saving always where the contrary is proved,) the delivery shall not be refused. Such de serters, when arrested, shall be placed at the disposal of the said cousuls, and may be put in the public prisons at the request and experise of those who reclaim them, to be sent to the vessels to which they belonged, or to of hers of the same nation. But, if they be not sent back within two months, to be countrd rom the day of their arrest, they shall be set at liberty, and shall 220t be again arrested for the same cause.
Art. XXXI. For the purpose of more eff ctually protecting their commerce and navigntion, the two contracting parties do hereby agree, as soon hereafter as circumstances will permit, to form a consular convention, which shall deciare specially the powers and immunities of the consuls and vice colisuls of the respective parties.
Art. XXXII. For the purpose of regulating the interior commerce between the frontier territories of both Republics, it is agreed that the Executive of tach shall have power, by musual agreement, of determining on the route and establishing the roads by which such commerce shall be conduce d; and in all cases where the caravans employed in such commerce may require convoy and protection by military escort, the Supreme Esecutive of each patión, shall, by mutual agreement, in like manner, fix on the period of dit parture for such caravans, and the point at which the military escort of the two nations shall be exchanged. And it is further agreed, that, imtil the regulations for governing this interior commerce between the two nations shall be establisher, that the commercial intercourse b: tween the State of Missouri of the United States of America, and New Mexico in the United Mexican States, shall be conducted as heretofore, each Government affording the necessary protection to the citizens of the other.
Art. XXXIII. It is likewise agreed that the two contracting parties shall, by all the means in their power, maintain peace and harmony among the several Indian nations who inhabit the lands adjacent to the lines and river's which form the boundaries of the two countries; and the better to attain this object, both parties bind themselves expressly to restrain, hy forer, all hostilities and incursions on the part of the Indian nations living within their respective boundaries: su that the United! States of America will not suffer their Indians to attack the citizens of the United Mexican States, nor the Indialisis habiting their territory; nor will the United Mexican States permit the Indians residing within their ter ritories to commit hostilities against the citizens of the United States of America, nor against the Indians residing within the limits of the United States, in any manner whatever.
And in the event of any person or persons captured by the Indians who inhabit the territory of either of the contracting parties, being or having been carried into the territories of the other, both Governments engage and bind themselves in the most soitmn manper to return them to their country as soon as they know of their being within their respective territories, or to deliver them up to the agent or representative of the Government that claims them, giving to each other, reciprocally, timely notics, and the claimant paying the ex.
penses incurred in the transmission and inaintenance of such person or persons, who, in the mean time, shall be treated with the utmost hospitality by the i cal authorities of the place where they may br. Nor shali ji be lawful, under any pretext whatever, for the citizens of either of the contracting parties to purchase or hold captive prisoners made by the In. drus inhabiting the teitor es oth other.
Art. XXXIV. The United States of America and the United Merican States, desiring to to make as dorable as circum-tana's will periit, the relations which are to be established bet wet n the two parties hy virtue of this treaty or general convention of amity, commerce, and navigation, have declared solemnly, and do agree to the folowing points:
First. The present treaty shall remain and be of force for eight years from the day of the exchange of the ratifications, and until the end of one year after either of the contracting parties shall have given no to the other of its intention to terminate the same; each of the contracting parties rest'rving to itself the right of giving such notice to the other, at the end of said term of eight years. And it is hereby agri ed between them, that, un the expiration of one year after such notice shall have been received by either of the parties from the Jother party, this treaty, in all its parts, relating to commerce and navigation, shail altogether eerse and determine, and in all those parts which relate to peace and friendship, it sliall be permanently and perpetually binding on both the contracting parties.
Secondly. If any one or more of the citizens of either party shall infringe any of the arti: eles of this treaty, such citizens shall be held personally responsible for the same; and the harmony and good correspondence between the two nations shall not be interrupted
thereby; each party engaging, in no way, to protect the offender, or sanction such viola. tion.
Thirdly. If-(what indeed cannot be expected) any of the articles contained in the present treaty shall be violated or infracted in any manner whatever, it is stipulated that neither o the contracting parties will order or authorize any acts of reprisal, nor declare war against the other, on complaints of injuries or damages, witil the said party considering itselt oftended, shall first have presented to the other a statement of such injuries or damages, verified by competent proofs, and demanded justice and satisfaction, and the same shall bave been eíther refused or unreasonably delayed.
Fourthly. Nothing in this treaty contained, shall however be construed to operate contrary to former and existing pub ic treaties with other Sovereigns or States.
The p esent treaty of amity, commerce, and navigation, shall be approved and ratified by the President of the United States of America, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, and by the Vice-President of the United Mexican States, with the consent and approbation of the Congn-ss thereof; and the ratifications shall be exchanged in
the city of Washington, within the term of one year, to be counted from the date of the signature hereof; or sooner, it possible.
Tii witness whereof, We, the Plenipotentiaries of the United States of America and of the United Mexican States, have signed and sealed these presents. Done in the city of
Mexico, on the fifth day of April, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-one, in the fifty-fifth year of the Independence of the United States of America, and in the eleventh of that of the United Mexican States.
[L. S.) LUCAS ALAMAN (L. S. 1 RAFAEL MANGINO, (L. S.]
ADDITIONAL ARTICLE. Whereas, in the present state of the Mexican shipping, it would not be possible for Mexico to receive the full advantage of the reciprocity established in the fifth and sixth ar ticles of the treaty signed this day, it is agreed that for the term of six years, the stipulations contained in the said articles shall be suspended; and in lieu thereof, it is hereby agreed, that, until theexpiration of the said term of six years, American vessels entering into the pores of Mexico, and all articles, the produce, growth, or manufacture of ih Vuited States of America, imported in such vessels, shall pay no other or higher duties, than are or may hereafter be payable in the said ports by the vessels and the like articles, the growth. produce or manufacture of the most favored nation; and, reciprocally, it is agreed that Mexican vessels entering into the ports of the United States of America, and all articles, the growth, produce, or manufacture of the United Mexican States, imported in such vessels, shall pay no otheror higher duties than are, or may hereafter be, payable in the said ports by the vessels and the like articles, the growth, produce, or manufacture of the most favored nation, and that no higher duties shall be paid, or bounties or drawbacks a lowed, on the exportation of any article, the growth, produce, or manufacture of either country, in the vessels of the other, than upon the exportation of the like articles in the vessels of any other foreign country
The present additional article shall have the same force and value as if it had been inserted, word for word, in the treaty signed this day. It shall be ratified, and the ratification exchanged at the same time.
In witness wherevf, We, the respective Plenipotentiaries, have signed and sealed the same Done at Mexico, on the fifill day of April, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-one.
[L. S.) LUCAS ALAMAN, ii.. . RAFAEL MANGINO, (L. S.]
TREATY WITH THE OT IOMAN PORTE. Treaty of Coinmerce and Navigation, betrocen the United States of America and the Ot
toman "Porte, concluded and signed at Constantinople,by the respertive Plenipotentiaries of the two Powers, on the 7th of May, 1830 ; and ratified by the President on the 2d of February, 1831. The ratifications were exchanged, at Constantinople, on the 5th of October, 1831, by avid Porier, Charge / Affaires of the United States near the Sublime Porte, and Nevljib Effendi, Reis Effenai of the Porte.
The object of this firm instrument, and the motive of this writing well drawn up, is that
No treaty or diplomatic and official convention, having, heretoftore, existed, between the the Sublime Porte, ot' perpetual duration, and the United States .f America ; at this tives in consideration of the desire formerly expressed, and of repeated propositions which h ve lately been renewed by that power and in consequence of the wish entertained by the Sublime Porte to testify the United States of America, its sentiments of friendship.-We, the Undersigned, Commissioners, invested with the high office of Chief of the chancery of State of the Sublime Porte, existing forever, having been permitted by His very Noble Im
perial Majesty to Degotiate and conclude a treaty, and having thereupon conferred with our friend, the huporable Charles Rhind, who has come to this Imperial Residence, fur. nished with full powers to negotiate, settle, and conclude, the articles of a treaty, separately and jointly with the other two Commissioners, Commodore Biddle and David Ofrey, now at Smyrna, have arranged, agird upon and concluded, the following articles :
Art. I. Merchants of the Sublime Porte, whether Musselmans or Rayahs, going and coming, in the countries, provinces. and ports, of the United States of America. or proceedwig from one po t to another, or from the ports of the United States to those of other countries,
pay the same duties and other imposts that are paid by the most favored nations; and they shall not be vexed by the exaction of higher duties; and in traveling by sca and by land, al the privileges and distinctions observed tou ards the subjects of other bowers, shall serve as a rule, and shall be observed towards the merchants and subje cts of the Sibline Porte. In like manner, American merchants who shall come to the well defided countries and ports of the Sublime Porte, shall pay the same duties and other imposts, that are paid by merchants of the most favored friend v Powers, and they shall not in any way, be vexed or no ested. On both sides, travelling passports shall be gianted.
Art. II. The Sublime Porte may estab'ish shahbenders (Consuis) in the United States of America; aud the United States may appoint the citizens to be Consuls or lice Consuls, at the commercial places in the dominions of the Sublime Porte, where it shall be found needful to superintend the affairs of commerce. These Consula or Vice Consuls shall be furnished with Berats or Firmans ; they shall enjoy suitable distinction, and shall have necessary aid and protection.
Art. III American merchants established in the well defended States of the Sublime Porte, for purposes of commerce, shall have liberty to employ Semsars (biokers) of any nation of religion, in like manner as merchants of others friendly Powers; and they shall not be disturbed in their affairs, nor shall they be treated, in any way, contrary to estab iished usages. American vessels arriving at, or departing from, the ports of Ottoman Empire, shall not be subjected to greater visit, by the officers of the custom-house and the Chancery of the Port, than sessels of the most favored nation.
Art. IV.' If litigations and disputes should arise between the subjects of th Sublime Porte and citizens of the United States, the parties shali not be heard, nor shall judgment be pronounced unless the American Dragoman be present. Causes in which the sum may excerd five hundred piasters, shall be submitted to the Sublime Porte, to be decided according to the laws of' equity and justice. Citizens of the United State4 of America quietty pursuing their commerce, and not being charged or convicted of any crime or offerice, shall not be molested; and even when they may have committed some offence they shali not be arrested and put in prison, by the local authorities, but they shall be tried by their Minister or Consul, and punished according to their offence, following, in this resp. ct, the usage observed towards other Frauks.
Art. V. American merchant vessels that trade to the dom nions of he Sublime Porte, may go and come in perfect safety with their own fag; but they shall not take the tag of any other Power, por shall they grant their Nag to the vessels of othe nations and powers,
vor to the vessels of ruyahs. The Minister, Consuls, and Vice Consu s of th: United States, shall not protect secretly or publicly, the l'uyahs of the Sublime Pore, and they shall never sufera departure from the principles here laid down and agreed to by mutual consent.
Arl vi. Vesses of war of the two contracting Parties, shali ob prve towards each other, remonstrations of friendship and good intelligence, according o naval sare; and towards merchant vessels th y shall exhibit the same kind and cou trous
Art. VII. Merchant vessels of the United States, in like man er a vessels of the most favored nations, shall bave liberty to pass the Canal of the Imperial Residence, and go and come in the Black Sea, either laden or in ballast; and they ma be laden with the produce, manufactures and effects, or the Ottoman Empire, such as are prohibited, as well as of their own country.
Art VIII. Merchant vessels of the two contracting rarties shall not be forciby taken, for the shipment of troops, munitions and other objecig of war, if the Captains or proprietors of the vesseis, shall be unwilling to freight thein.
Art. ix. If any merchant vessel or either of the contracting parties, should be wreck. Jed, assistance and protertion shall be afforded to those of the crew that may be saved ; and
th verchendisc adeffi cth which it may be possible to save and recover, sla'l be conteved to the Consul, nearest to the place of the wrecli, to be, by him, delivered to the proprietors.
The foregoing articles, agreed upon and concluded. between the Riassert (Chancery of State,) and the above mentioned Commissioner of the United States, when signed by ih other two
Commissioners, shall be exchanged. In ten months from the date of this Temessuck, or instrument of treaty, the exchange of the ratifications of the two Power's 15.'l be made, and the rticles of this treaty shall have full force and be strictly observed
the two Contacting Powers. Given the fourtenti: day of the inoon Zilcande, and in the year of the Hegira, 1245, cor
ponding with the seventh day of May, of the year one thousand eight bundrus and thirty of the Christian Æra.
MOHAMMED HAMID, Reis-ul-Kutab. (Reis Ejendi).