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during a long period of years, and nothing should be THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 10, 1892.

altered in their execution unless considered advisable by I

the board, or unless the experiment should be found use

less, or devoid of chance of success. The main thing EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY.

should be to provide for the duration of the experiment, - xperimental Evolution. By Henry de Varigny, D.Sc.

whether the originators were living or dead, and to follow (London : Macmillan, 1892.)

it out for a long time. Time is an indispensable element

in such investigations, and experiments of this sort will DA R. HENRY DE VARIGNY has enriched the surely exceed the normal duration of human lifetime.”

literature of biology by publishing in the “Nature A special branch of the work of such an institute should eries” the lectures on “ Experimental Evolution” de- be experimental investigations in comparative psychology. vered by him in 1891 to the Summer School of Art and of this there is nowadays some need. Speaking of the cience in Edinburgh. This school, as is well known, transmission of acquired characters, Dr. de Varigny as been doing good work on Extension lines in Edin- says, “ Psychology affords similar instances. A kitten urgh, and Prof. Geddes is to be congratulated on having which has never seen a dog is afraid from the first ecured the co-operation of so able a biologist and so moment it perceives one ; young birds of many species icid an exponent of the special aspects of biology with instinctively fear the hawk and other birds of prey, hich he has identified himself as M. de Varigny. The while remaining unaffected by the presence of other :ctures are well worthy of publication, for they contain birds. Are not these psychological attitudes' due to

rich, well-ordered, and, for the most part, well-sisted environment (acting on the mens of ancestors) which ody of facts collected from many sources, and especially have been transmitted by inheritance ; are these not rom the publications of French naturalists. But the acquired characters ?From observations of my own uthor is more than a collector of facts recorded by other I am prepared to say that it is by no means universally orkers; he is himself a worker in this special field of true that a kitten which has never seen a dog is afraid iological science. And some of the most valuable of from the first moment it perceives one. Mr. Spalding se observations contained in the work are the result of does indeed describe how the smell of his hand with is own careful and exact investigations.

which he had been fondling a dog set four blind kittens Experimental biology is still in its infancy. It is true puffing and spitting in a most comical fashion. But a nat our domesticated animals and plants are the result of careful observer, Mr. Mann Jones, writes to me that a such experimental work in the past ; but the experiments young kitten with which he experimented “took ere not planned with the object of explaining organic eight days to connect the smell or odour of iture, and were therefore not biological in their aim. his hand with the thing-dog." And my own obserhere is pressing need at the present time for experi- vations are confirmatory of those of Mr. Mann Jones. ents with such definite scientific aim ; for experiments, Mr. Hudson, in a very interesting chapter of the “Naturalat is to say, carried out with the express object of ist in La Plata," gives observations which tend to show sting the truth of biological principles. And that this that young birds afford little evidence of instinctive ork be well done there is pressing need for organization. fear of particular enemies; and my own experi'e have only to look at the results which have been ments with young chicks lead me to believe ached by well-planned and well-directed marine that they have no instinctive knowledge of the ations in extending our biological knowledge, faunal, things of this world. Any unusual and sharp sound (e.g., orphological, and embryological, to see what may be a chord on the violin), any large approaching object (e.g., one by organization of research. What Dr. de Varigny a ball rolled towards them), causes alarm. There is no oquently pleads for, and what our own countryman, evidence of instinctive particularization of alarming obr. Romanes, is also pleading for, is an experimental jects. Such observations lead me to look with suspicion stitute, well planned and adequately supported, the on any arguments for the transmission of acquired irpose of which shall be to carry out extensive experi- characters based on supposed instinctive knowledge of ents for testing evolution hypotheses in all their things. And they show the need of further research in arings.

comparative psychology such as could be carried out at “It appears to me,” says Dr. de Varigny, “that this the Institute of Experimental Biology. ititution should comprise the following essential ele- It may be said that the central hypothesis of modern ents :-Rather extensive grounds, a farm with men evolution, that of natural selection, stands in no need of perienced in breeding, agriculture, and horticulture; experimental verification. But it will presumably be adne greenhouses, and a laboratory with the common mitted, even by those who are firm in their belief, among plia nces of chemistry, physiology, and histology. Of whom I count myself, that further experimental support ürse this must be located in the country. It is very will be of the utmost value. There are many who assume portant to have experienced farm hands, and a good a sceptical attitude, and who say-We grant the ineinist and histologist are necessary in the staff of the exorable logic of your conclusions if your premisses titution. As to the general management, it seems be established. More individuals are born than can or do isable to have a director with a board of competent survive ; the devil devours the hindmost ; and a beneficent n2, whose functions would be to decide, after careful selection rewards the survivors with the privilege of proestigation and exchange of views, what are the funda- creation : hence, progress towards increased adaptation. ntal experiments to be performed. These experi- A very pretty piece of logic. But now, they say, show us the is, when once decided upon, should be pursued | devil at work. We pretend to no particular knowledge

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-Elements of the comet Barnard, of October 12, 1892, by M. L. brilliantly a yellow, a green, and a blue line. In addition to Schulhof. ---On the algebraic integrals of the differential equation the ordinary lines due to mercury some twenty new lines were of the first order, by M. L. Autonne.-On centres of geodesic observed. No satisfactory results were obtained by using curvature, by M. Th. Caronnet.---On Pfaffs problem, by amalgams instead of mercury, with the one exception of M. A. J. Stodolkievitz.--Sunspots and magnetic disturbances in sodium-amalgam. It is proposed to make further experiments 1892, by M. Ricco.-On considerations of homogeneity in with fluid amalgams of sodium and potassium. physics ; reply to M. Clavenad, by M. Vaschy.–Verification of parallelism of optic axes in uniaxial crystalline plates, by M. Bernard Brunhes.-On a photoptometric photometer, for the

BOOKS and SERIALS RECEIVED. measurement of feeble illuminations, by M. Charles Henry. This is based upon the constancy of the phosphorescent sulphide Record, 1891 (Gurney and Jackson). —Castorologia, or the History and

Books.- The Great World's Farm : S. Gaye (Seeley).—The Zoological of zinc. Its law of loss of brilliance being determined, it may Traditions of the Canadian Beaver : H. T. Mariin (Stanford). -Transac. be used for measuring very feeble illuminations, such as distant tions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, vol. xxxvi. Parts 2 and 3 (Edinartificial light or the general luminosity of the sky due to the

burgh).-Les Alpes Françaises : A. Falsan (Paris, Baillière) --Calendar of

the University College of Wales, Aberystwith. 1892-93 (Manchester, stars. The decrease of light aster the first 900 seconds being Cornish). - London Birds and other Sketches, revised edition : T. D. Pigott given by < 0·5 (t – 18.5) = const., it is easy to calculate the (Porter). -Contents and Index of the First Twenty Volumes of the Memoirs luminosity at any instant. In the instrument in question there

of the Geological Survey of India. 1859-83 : W. The bald (Calcutta).are two screens of ground glass, one of which is illuminated by

Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India ; Index to the Genera and

Species described in the Palæ ntologia Indica, up to the Year 1891: W. the phosphorescent sulphide, brought to its maximum glow at Theobald (Calcutta).-Star Atlas : Dr. H. J. Klein, translated. &c., by E. a certain time by burning magnesium ribbon, the other McClure, new edition (S.P.C.K.). --City and Guilds of London Institute exposed to the source of light. It is then only necessary

Programme of Technol»gical Examinations, 1892-93 (London). —Appareils

d'Essai à froid et à chaud des Moteurs à Vapeur : M. Dudebout (Paris, to wait till both the screens are equally illuminated, and Gauthier-Villars). ---Canon Torpilles et Cuirase: A. Croneau (Paris, to note the time.-On the dissociation of chrome alum, Gauthier-Villars).-Ostwald's Klassiker der Exakten Wissenschaften, Nos. by MM. H. Baubigny and E. Pechard. - On the tempera

31 37. (Leipzig. Engelmann). - Gesammelte Abhandlungen über Paanzen

Physiologie. Erster" Band: J. Sachs (Leipzig, Engelmann).-On the tures of maximum density of aqueous solutions, by M. L.

American Iron Trade and its Progress during Sixteen Years : Sir L. Bell de Coppet. -On some double salts of quinine, by M. E. (Ballantyne). -Universal Atlas, Part 20 (Cassell). Grimaux.—On the thermal value of the three functions of Serials. - The Physical Society of London, Proceedings, vol. xi. Part 4 orthophosphoric acid, and on its constitution, by M. de Forcrand.

(Taylor and Francis). — Botanical Gazetre, October (Blooinington, Indiana). - Preparation and properties of fibroine, by M. Leo Vignon.— fasc. : C. Fabre (Paris, Gauthier-Villars). -Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche

- Traité Encyclopédique de Photographie, Premier Supplément A. quat. Regeneration of the so-called sporangial form in the diatoms, Zoologie, liv. Band, 4 Hest (Williams and Norgate).-Morphologisches by M. P. Miquel.-On the hematozoaria of cold-blooded

Jahrbuch, xix. Band, i Heft (Williams and Norgate). vertebrates, by M. Alphonse Labbé. - Influence of coloured light on the development of animals, by M. E. Yung.-On the mode of fixation of the hexapod parasitic larvæ of the acarians,

CONTENTS.

PAGE by M. S. Jourdain.—The cavern of Brassempouy, by M. Edouard Piette. -Discovery of a skeleton of Elephas meridionalis in the

The University Commission . basaltic ashes of the volcano of Senèze, by M. Marcellin Boule.

The Study of Animal Life. By C. LI. M.

3 - Vegetable prints of the Dover boring, by M. R. Zeiller.

Vector Algebra
The Lake of Geneva. By Prof. T. G. Bonney, F.R.S. 5

Our Book Shelf:-
BERLIN.

Ward : “ Horn Measurements and Weights of the Meteorological Society, October 11.-Prof. von Bezold, Great Game of the World, being a Record for the president, in the chair. ---Dr. Berson reported on an interesting Use of Sportsmen and Naturalists'

6 relationship which he had discovered between insolation and Philippson: “Der Peloponnes. Versuch einer Landestemperature. Since it has not yet been possible to delermine kunde auf geologischer Grundlage

6 accurately the absorption due to the atmosphere, the speaker

Fabre: “ Traité Encyclopédique de Photographie." had calculated the insolation at the external limit of the atmo

W.

6 sphere, which admits of rigid mathematical treatment, both for

“The Reliquary" : Quarterly Archäological Journal the whole year and for the months of January and July. The

and Review .

7 mean of insolation for the whole year was found to lie at the

Letters to the Editor :thirtieth degrees of northerly and southerly latitude, so that the Nova Aurigæ.-H. F. Newall

7 zone between these parallels, or about 60 per cent. of the whole

Formation of Lunar Volcanoes. (Illustrated.)–J. B. external surface, receives more insolation than the mean, whereas

Hannay

7 the two polar caps, or the remaining 40 per cent., receive less.

On the Need of a New Geometrical Term—"ConjuA similar calculation of the annual iemperature gave the mean

gate Angles.”—Prof. A. M. Worthington

8 as at latitude 38° N. and 35° S., giving as before 60 per cent. of Printing Mathematics.-W. Cassie the surface with the temperature above the mean, and 40 per cent.

“Sunshine.”—Amy Johnson ; C. V. B. below. In January 61'35 per cent. of the surface experienced an The Photography of an Image by Reflection.-Fredeinsolation above the mean and 60 per cent, a temperature above

rick J. Smith the mean, while in July the percentages were respectively 61.37

Induction and Deduction.-Edward T. Dixon

IO and 61'33.—Dr. Zenker gave a short account of a research on the

Bell's Idea of a New Anatomy of the Brain.-Jas. B. relationship between temperature and insolation on the earth's Bailey . surface. He had accurately calculated the relationship both for Photographic Dry Plates.-Arthur E. Brown regions comprising land only and water only, and arrived at

The Genus Sphenophyllum. (With Diagram.) By some interesting conclusions as to the theoretical temperatures

Prof. Wm. Crawford Williamson, F.R.S. at various latitudes of continents and oceans.

Dendritic Forms. By Sydney Lupton.

13

Notes. Physical Society, October 21.-Prof. Kundt, president, in Our Astronomical Column :the chair.-Dr. Jager gave an account of the measurements he

Comet Brooks (August 28)

IS had made, in conjunction with Dr. Kreischgauer, of the tem

Comet Barnard (October 12)

18 perature-coefficient of electric conductivity of mercury. Dr.

Tabular History of Astronomy to the Year 1500 A.D Arons demonstrated an arc-light between mercurial electrodes

A Large Telescope

18 in vacuo. It yielded a dazzling white lighi, which was steady

The Atmospheres of Planets

18 at the anode but Aickered and jumped at the cathode : its

Geographical Notes

19 intensity approximated to that of an ordinary carbon arc- The Institution of Mechanical Engineers

19 light. The heat given off by it was but slight so that the tube

International Committee of Weights and Measures could be held in the hand; the temperature was highest at the

Notes on some Ancient Dyes. By Edward Schunck, cathode. Attempts were made to determine the resistance of

F.R.S.. the arc, but without result. It was found by the use of a tele.

Scientific Serials

23 phone that the current is discontinuous. A spectroscopic

Societies and Academies

23 investigation of the light revealed a lime-spectrum showing very Books and Serials Received

24

:

:

IO

II II

II

.

18

21

22

NOVEMBER 3, 1892]

SCIENCE INSTRUMENTS .

An Illustrated, Priced, and Descriptive Catalogue of the Instru.
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FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 4. GEOLOGISTS' AssocIATION, at 8.-Conversazione. JUNIOR ENGINEERING Sociery, at 8.-Presidential Address : Dr. John Hopkinson, F.R.S.

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“Morong": S. E. Peal. INSTITUTION OP Civil ENGINEERS, at 8.- President's Address : Harrison Hayter.-Presentation of Prizes.

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Sec ndary Tucker Circles: J. Griffiths. INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.—The Problems of Com

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TO SCIENCE LECTURERS. See Mr. HUGHES'S PATENT COMBINATION OPTICAL LANTERN, used by late W. LANT CARPENTER, Esq., Prof. Forbes. New Triple constructed for B. J. MALDEN, Esq., this season. New Oxyhydrogen Microscope. Grand Results Dicwra Triple, Prize Medal, Highest Award. Supplied to the Royal Polytechnic Institution, Dr. H. GRATTAN GUINNESS, Madame Adelina Parti, &c. Patent Pamphagos Lantern Science Lecture Sets. Novelties Cheapest and Best. Elaborately Illustrated Catalogue, 300 pages, is.; Postage, 5d. Smaller do., 6d. Pamphlets Free.-HUGHES, SPECIALIST, Brewster House, Mortimer Road, Kingsland, N.

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SIR GEORGE B. AIRY.
THOMAS HENRY HUXLEY,

J. LOUIS R. AGASSIZ.
CHARLES DARWIN.

JEAN BAPTISTE ANDRÉ DUMAS.
JOHN TYNDALL.

SIR RICHARD OWEN.
GEORGE GABRIEL STOKES.

JAMES CLERK MAXWELL,
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JAMES PRESCOTT JOULE.
SIR CHARLES WHEATSTONE.

WILLIAM SPOTTISWOODE.
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SIR JOSEPH DALTON HOOKER.

LOUIS PASTEUR.
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