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Professor Whipple and his associates offer elective courses to the Fourth Year Class and a limited number of students may undertake research problems. The selection of such students will depend upon their fitness for this work. Opportunities also will be afforded graduates in medicine who wish to enter upon a career of research.

THE SHEFFIELD SANBORN SCHOLARSHIP Through the generosity of Mrs. Frances B. Sanborn, one of the three scholarships known as the Sheffield Sanborn Scholarships has been assigned to the Medical School. This scholarship yields $250 per annum at present and is open only to students who have not yet received the degree in Medicine and who otherwise would not have the opportunity to acquire a University training. Applications for this scholarship should be filed with the Recorder of the Faculties by March 20th of

A blank form of application may be obtained from the Recorder of the Faculties at Berkeley.

each year.

HOSPITAL APPOINTMENTS Internships in the University Hospital are open to eight graduates of the University of California Medical School or some other approved medical school. Internes serve for one year, without salary. The appointments are made by the Hospital Committee who take into account both the character of the work of the candidate and his general fitness.

Internships in the San Francisco Hospital also are awarded to three members of the graduating class. Positions in some of the private hospitals in San Francisco are filled annually either upon recommendation of the Medical Faculty or by competitive examination.

This year the Regents of the University have provided positions at the University Hospital for a resident in Medicine, Surgery, Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Pediatrics. These appointments, not necessarily limited to one year, are open to graduates in medicine who have had previous hospital experience and possess suitable qualifications for the work. Each position carries with it a salary of $600 a year, and accommodations in the hospital.



GENERAL STATEMENT As with other departments of the University, instruction in the Medical School extends from the middle of August to the middle of May. The academic year is divided into semesters of sixteen weeks' duration. The first semester extends from August to the Christmas recess; the second from January to the close of the academic year.

The chief aim of the School is to develop medical practitioners and to offer facilities which will enable qualified students to prepare them. selves for special medical work. The faculty is in sympathy with the principle which allows the student great freedom in choosing the direction his studies shall take. A system of instruction has been inaugurated which will permit wide choice in selecting the fourth year work. This radical departure from the old order, which required all students to pursue one and the same course, could not be effected suddenly, and at present, therefore, the amount of time alloted electives is somewhat less than will ultimately become available.

The course of instruction is in harmony with the principles adopted

the Association of American Medical Colleges. Following the terminology employed by that Association the amount of work required in various subjects is indicated by the number of hours devoted to them. But in the case of the fundamental sciences—Anatomy, Physiology, Biological Chemistry, Pharmacology, Pathology, and Bacteriology -the courses are also assigned a "unit" value such as other departments of this University employ. This expression is used since, under certain conditions, the subjects mentioned may be elected by nonmedical students to fulfill the requirements for degrees other than the medical. In so far as the courses required for medical students are concerned, these units have no particular significance. The elective courses in these departments, however, may be taken by medical students in fulfilling requirements for a Master's degree, and the required courses may be counted in the combined course as fulfilling units for the B.S. degree, as well as part of the work for the M.D. degree.

In general, the University has adopted, as a standard, a unit of sixteen hours of didactic teaching, or forty-eight hours of laboratory work. The unit of demonstrative or clinical teaching occupies a middle ground of thirty-two hours. Thirty-two units represent the work of the average year. Exceptional students can carry two to four units more.

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In general, the four years curriculum leading to the degree of Doctor of Medicine falls into three periods. First, that devoted to the fundamental medical sciences. Second, that occupied by clinical instruction. And, third, the elective period.

As the requirements for admission are such that the student enters after he has received training in physics, inorganic and organic chemistry, and biology, these subjects are not taught in the medical school. The first period of instruction covers three semesters and is devoted to anatomy, histology, physiology, biological chemistry, bacteriology, and pathology. Nearly all the work in these subjects is obligatory. They provide the basis for the study of clinical medicine; and the laboratory instruction which occupies the major portion of the student's time dur. ing this period is planned to develop powers of accurate observation.

Clinical instruction begins with the second semester of the second year. The initial courses in medicine and surgery deal chiefly with the problems of diagnosis. They aim to train further the faculty of critical observation and to instill into the student good habits in taking case histories and in carrying out systematically the examination of patients. In this semester, also, materia medica, pharmacology, and hygiene are taught.

Obligatory clinical instruction continues through the third year, and is given in the class-room, the clinical laboratory, the dispensary, and at the bedside. In the Out-Patient Department students take the histories of patients and make the necessary examinations under the direction of the attending staff. In the wards of the University Hospital and the San Francisco Hospital they are assigned cases for thorough study and have every opportunity to become familiar with therapeutic methods. During the first semester of the fourth year the required work in medicine, surgery, obstetrics, gynecology, pediatrics and the various specialties will be completed.

At present the elective period of the fourth year consists of only the second semester but eventually will include the first semester. All departments of the School offer optional work, and in general three possibilities are open to the student: (a) He may elect a number of short courses with a view to becoming a general practitioner. (b) He may select a few long courses looking toward a career in some special field of practice. (c) He may devote his time to the laboratories of the fundamental sciences for the purpose of training as a teacher and in. vestigator.

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