Slike strani

ftinguish that person from all others those who have chosen tragedy for who have the same catt of features, their lubject, have contented themand the same tint of complexion. felves with the distant resemblance, In like manner do the minds of men which indi criminatc cxpreffions of differ from each other. There are paffion, and im, erfect, because gein these allo general marks of di- neral marks of character, can give. finction ; quickness, or clearnels, Elevated ideas become the hero ; or want of apprehenfion; a seve- a professed contempt of all princirity or a mildness of temper ; ten- ples denote3 a villain ; frequent derness or violence in the paffions. gusts of rage betray violence, and But no asemblage of these will tender sentiments thew a mildnels, together form the character of any of disposition. But a villain differs individual : for he has some predo- not more from a saint, than he minant principle; there is a certain does in some particulars from anproportion in which his qualities other as bad as himelt : and the are mixed; and each affects the same degrees of anger, excited by other. Those qualities check that the fame occalions, break forth in principle, though at the same time as many several tha:cs, as there they are themselves controuled by are various tempers.

But these it : for nothing is absolutely pure distinguising peculiarities between and simple in his compolition ; and, man and man, have too often therefore, if his peculiarities do not efi aped the observation of tragic appear, no resemblance of him can writers. The cimic writers hare, be seen.

indeed, frequently caught them ; “ The force of character is so but then they are apt to fall into an Atrong, that the moit violent pas- excess the other way, and overfions do not prevail orer it; on the charge their imitations : they do contrary, it directs them, and gives not iuffer a character to fhew itfell, a particular turn to all their ope- but are continually pointing it out rations. The most pathetic ex- to observation ; and by thus bidding pressions, therefore, of the passions the spectator take notice of the are not true, if they are not ac- likeness, tell him all the while that commodated to the character of the it is but a representation. The person supposed to feel them; and former is commonly the defect of the the effect upon the spectators will French tragedies, which are therebe weak, when so much of the fore infipid, even when they rcality is wanting in the imitation. abound wih poetry and passion : Such general expreslions of the and the latter is a fault common in paffions are, in poetry, like those the English comedies, which makes which in painting arecalled Studies; them disgusting, though they are and which, unless they are adapted full of wit, good sense, and hu. 80 the features, circumstances, and mour. The one fails thort of dispolitions of the several per- character, the other runs into fonages, to whose tigures they are caricature; that wants resemblance, applied, remain mere studies still, and this is mere mimickry. and do not connect with the por- " Shakespeare has generally trait or history-piece into which avoided boih extremes; and, howthey are introduced.

ever faulty in some respects, is si Yet the generality of dramatic in this, the most efsential part of writers, and more especially of the drama, considered as a repre


fentation, excellent beyond compa- recommend it as a subject worthy
rison. No other drarnatic writer of criticisin : and though it admits
could ever pretend to fo deep and so not of luch general rules as the
extenfive a knowledge of the human conduct of the fable, yet every
heart; and he had a genius to several character furnithing a variety
express all that his penetration of remarks, the mind, by attending
could discover. The characturs, to them, acquires a turn to such
therefore, which he has drawn, observations; than which nothing
are masterly copies from nature ; is more agreeable or more useful
differing each from the other, and in forining the judgment, whether
animated as the originals, though on real characters in life, or dra-
correct to a scrupulous precition, matic representacions of them.”
The truth and force of the imitation


[From the fame Work.]

A tured as that of Macbeth,

Mind so framed and so tor- Fear not, Macbeth! No man that's barn

of woman when the hour of extremity presses

Sball e'er bave power upon thee.-Fly

false Thanes, upon him, can find no refuge but

And mingle with the English Epicures! in despair ; and the expression of The mind I sway by, and the heart I that despair by Shakespeare, is per- bear, haps one of the finest pictures that

Shall never sagg with doubt, nor shakt

with fear! erer was exhibited. It is wildness, inconsistency, and disorder, to such His faith in these assurances is ima degree, and so apparent, that

plicit; he really is persuaded that “ Some say he's mad; others who lesser he may defy the forces of his ene

hate him, Dp call it valiant fury; but for certain, friends : but immediately after, on

mies, and the treachery of his He cannot buckle his diftempered cause Within the belt of rule."

ly on seeing a man who, not having It is presumption without hope, the numbers approaching against

the same support, is frightened at and confidence without courage them, he catches his apprehenfion;


tells him
perstition; he buoys himself up
with it against all the dangers that Those lineo cheeks of thine
threaten him, and yet finks upon

Are counsellors to fear ;
every fresh alarm:

and then, though nothing had hap“Bring me no more reports ; let them pened to impeach the credit of those fly all :

assurances on which he relied, he Till Birnam wood remove tp Dunlioane, I cannot taint with fear. What's the gives way to the depression of his boy Malcolm?

fpirits, and desponds in the midst Was he not born of woman? Spirits of security :

that know,
All mortal consequences, have pro-

“ Take thy face hcocerSeyton ! I'ma nounced it,


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fick as heart,

When I behold-Seyton! I say, this neither the troubles of his consci. path

ence, nor his concern for her, can Wil checr me ever, or disease me now. I have lived long enough; my way of divert his artention from the diltreis

of his situation. He tells her phy: life Is fali'n into the fear, the yellow leaf.” tician that the Thanes fly from him;

and betrays to him, whole allistance By these reflexions, by those which he could not want, and in whom follow on his uncomfortable pro. he did not mean to pla e any parti. spect of old age, and by those which cular confidence, his apprehentions he afterwards makes on the vanity of the English forces. After he of life, when he hears that Lady has forbid those about him to bring Macbeth is no more, he appears to him any more reports, he anxious. be preparing for his fate. But his ly enquires for news ; he dreads efeening composure is not resigna. very danger which he supposes he tion; it is pallion fill; it is one of fcorns ; at leait he recurs to his futhe irregularities of despair, which

peritition, as to the only relief from fometimes overwhelms him, at other his agony; and concludes the agitimes starts into rage, and is at all tated icene, as he had begun it, times intemperate and extravagant. with declaring that he The resolution with which he bore up again it the desertion of the « --will not be afraid of death or bane, Thanes, fails him, upon meeting

Till Birnam forcft come to Dunfinanc." the meilenger who comes to tell At his next appearance he gives his him the numbers of the enemy: orders, and considers his fituation when he receives the confirmation more calmly ; but ttill there is no of that news, his dejection turns fpirit in hin. If he is for a fhost into fury, and he declares,

time fedate, it is because “l'll fight, till from my bones my flcíh " -he has surfeited with horrors; is hack'A''

Direness, famiiiar to his flaughterous He then impetuously gives his er- thoughts, ders to

Cannot muw start him." Send out more horses; skirt the country round;

He appears composed, only because Hang those that talk of fear.”

he is become almost indifferent to He repeats them afterwards with by the death of the Queen, whom

every thing: he is hardiy atletied imparience. Though the enemy is he tenderly loved : he checks him. till at a distauce, he calls for his felf for withing she had lived lorg. armour; notwithstanding Seyton's

er ;

for he is weary himselt of lite, remonftrance that it is not needed yet, which in his estimation now he perfits in putting it on; he calls for it eagerly afterwards; he bids “ Is: but a walking hadow; a poor the person who is affilling him, dif


That itruts and frets his hour upon the patch; then the moment it is on,

stage, he pulls it off again, and directs And then is heard no more: it is a tale his attendants to bring it after bim. Told by an idcot, full of sound and In the midk of all this violence and

fury, huriy, she melancholy which preys

Signifying nothing" upon him News itelt, by the sym. Yet though he grows more careless pathy he expreises so fcelingly, ahout his fate, he cannot reconcile when the diseated mind of Lady himself to it; he till flatters bima Macbeth is mentioned; and yet self ihat he shall efcape, even after




he has found the equivocation of the and then patiently endeavours to fiend. When Birnam wood appear- perfuade this injured adversary to ed to come towards Dunfinane, he detiit froin fo unequal a combar; trusts to the other assurance; and for he is confident that it must be believes that he

fatal to Macduff, and therefore tells “ Bears a charmed life, which must not yield

" Thow lofest labour; To one of woman born.".

As easy mayest thou the intrenchant

air His confidence however, begins to With thy keen (word inpress, as make fail him; he raves as soon as he me bleed ;

I et fall thy blade on vulnerable crests; perceives that he has reason to

I bear a charmed life.”. doubt of the promises which had been made to him, and says,

But his reliance on his charm be.

ing taken away by the explanation “ If this which he avouches does ap- given by Macduff, and cvery hope

pear, There is no flying lience, uor tarrying

row failing him, though he willies here,

not to fight, yet his fense of ho. I'gin to be a weary of the fun, nour being touched by the threat, And with the state o'th' world were to be made the fbew and gaze of the

now undone. Ring the alarum bell:--Blow, wind! time, and all his pations being now

loti in despair, his babits recur to gocome, wrack! At least we'll die with harness on our

vern him; he disdains the thought back."

of disgrace, and dies as becomes a

foldier. His lait words are But sensible, at last, that he is dri. ven to extremity, and that

-“ I will not yield,

To kiss the ground before young MalThey've tied him to a fake; he can

coin's feet, not fly,

And to be baited by the rabble's curse. But, bear-like, he must fight the course,” Tho' Birnam woud be come to Dunli

nane, he summons all his fortitude; and,

And thou oppos'd being of no woman agre«ably to the minlineis of cha.

born, racter to which he had always form- Yet will I try the lan: before my body cd himself, behaves with more ten

I throw my warlike thield: Jay of..

Macduft! per and sprit during the battle than he had before. He is so well re

And damn'd be he that first cries Hold,

enough." covered from the disorder he had been in, that the natural sensibility

If this behaviour of Macbeth of his disposition finds even in the required, it would receive illuftrafield an opportunity to work; where tion, by comparing it with that of he declines to fight with Macduff, Richard in circumitances not very not from fear, but from a consci. ditiert nt. When he is to fight for ousness of the wrongs he had done his crown and for his life, he preto him : he therefore answers his pires for the crisis with the most provoking challenge, only by fsy- perfect eveoness of temper; and ing

riles as the danger thickens, into

ardour, without once itirting out “ Of all men else I have avoided thee : But get the back; my soul is too much into dejection. Though he is fo

into intemperance, or ever sinking charg'd With blood of thing alrcady." jar from being supported, that he

is depressed, as much as a brave More than to Richmond ? for the selfspirit can be depressed, by superna.

fame heaven, tural means, and instead of having

That frowns on me, looks fadly upon

him." a superstitious confidence, he is threatened by all the ghosts of all He takes notice of the superiority whom he has murthered, that they of his numbers, he points out the will fit heavy on his soul to-morrow, circumstance that, yet he soon fhakes off the impresfion they had made, and is again

_" The king's name is a tower of as gallant as ever. Before their


Which they upon the adverse faction appearance he feels a presentiment

want." of his fate; he observes that he

He represents the enemy as a troop “has not that alacrity of spirit, only of banditii; he urges the inNor checr of mind, that he was wont io have :"

experience of Richmond ; and he

animates his foldiers with their and upon signifying his intention of lying in Bofworth field that night,

“ Ancient word of courage, fair St. the reflexion of where to-morrow?

George," occurs to him; but he pules it a. the effect of which he had before fide by answering, Well, all' intimated to the Duke of Norfolk ; for that: and he struggles against when, having explained to him the the lowness of spirits which he dispolition he intended, he asks him, feels, but cannot account for, by calling for a bowl of wine, and “ This, aud St. George to boot! what

think'i thou, Norfolk !" applying to bufiness. Instead of giving way to it in himself, he at. He deliberately, and after having tends to every symptom of dejec. furvey'd the vantage of the ground, tion in others, and endeavours to "forms that disposition by himself; dispel them. He asks,

for which purpose he calls for ink

and being informed that “ My lord of Surry, why look you

fo sad?”

it is ready, directs his guard to

watch, and his attendants to leave He enquires,

him; but, before he retires, he “Saw'st thou the melancholy lord issues the neceffary orders. They Northumberland ?"

are not, like tho'e of Macbeth, and is fatisfied upon being told, that general and violent, but temperate

and particular; delivered coolly, he and Surry were busied in cherre and diftin&tly given to different pering up the soldiers. He adverts to fons. To the Duke of Norfolk he every circumstance which can dis- trusts the mounting of the guard hearten or encourage his attend

during the night, and bids him be ants or his troops, and obferves ready himself early in the morning. upon them accordingly. When he He directs Catesby to perceives'' the gloominess of the morning, and that the fun might « Seud out a pursuivant at arms probably not be seen that day, his To Stauley's regiment; bid him bring observation is,

Before sun-rising." “ Not shine to day? why, what is that

and paper,

his power

He bids his mienial servants

** Saddle

to nie

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