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table and animal parasites, etc. Samples sent for examination are analyzed or tested, and reported upon by letter as rapidly as the examinations can be completed. The entire technical staff of the college takes part in the experimental work. There are at present eight stations at which this work is prosecuted, namely:
A. The Central Station at Berkeley, organized in the year 1875, from which all work connected with the various Experiment Stations is directed, whereall laboratory investigations are made, and whence all official communications are sent. The University grounds, portions of which are set apart for experimental culture, are much diversified in aspect, are traversed by twowatercourses, and are adapted to a great variety of plant life.
B. Four Outlying Culture Stations, intended mainly for culture experiments in the several distinct climatic regions of the State. These are: (1) The Sierra Foothill Station, near Jackson, Amador County; (2) The Southern Coast Range Station, near Paso Robles, San Luis Obispo County; (3) The San Joaquin Valley Station, near Tulare, Tulare County; (4) The Southern California Station, on the Chino Ranch, between Chino and Pomona, Los Angeles County.
C. Two Forestry Stations, one at Santa Monica. Los Angeles County; the other near Chico, Butte County. The management of these stations was. transferred to the University by the State Legislature in 1893.
D. A Viticultural Station, near Mission San José, Alameda County, underprivate auspices. Its patron is the Palmdale Company.
The Gymnasium, presented to the University by A. K. P. Harmon, is well! equipped, and provides all the students with opportunities for physical exercise. It contains ten shower-baths, sixteen dressing-rooms, and five hundred lockers for the use of students, each student being required to make a deposit for a key to a locker.
The gymnastic exercises of the students are conducted systematically under the supervision of the Department of Physical Culture. (See page 125.),
LICK ASTRONOMICAL DEPARTMENT.
OFFICERS OF THE OBSERVATORY.
MARTIN KELLOGG, President of the University.
EDWARD S. HOLDEN, Director and Astronomer.
JOHN M. SCHAEBERLE, Astronomer.
EDWARD E. BARNARD, Astronomer.
WILLIAM W. CAMPBELL, Astronomer.
R. H. TUCKER, JR., Astronomer.
ALLEN L. COLTON, Assistant Astronomer.
HISTORY OF THE LICK OBSERVATORY.
The Observatory was founded by JAMES LICK, by his deed of trust dated September 21, 1875. This deed devotes the sum of $700,000 to "the purpose of purchasing land, and constructing and putting up on such land
a powerful telescope, superior to and more powerful than any telescope yet made; * * and, also, a suitable observatory connected therewith." The deed further provides that "if, after the construction of said telescope and observatory, there shall remain of said $700,000 any surplus," the surplus shall be invested, and that "the income thereof shall be devoted to the maintenance of said telescope and the observatory connected therewith, and shall be made useful in promoting science; and the said telescope and observatory are to be known as the Lick Astronomical Department of the University of California." The gift of Mr. LICK was accepted by the Board of Regents December 7, 1875.
Mr. LICK had already, in August, 1875, selected Mt. Hamilton, in Santa Clara County, as a site for the Observatory. Land for the site (1,350 acres) was granted by Act of Congress, June 7, 1876. One hundred and forty-nine acres additional were purchased by Mr. LICK, and a tract of forty acres was added by gift of R. F. MORROW, Esq., in 1886. The north half of section sixteen of the township was granted to the University, for the use of the Observatory, by the Legislature of California in 1888. This land (320 acres) is continuous with the grant from the United States. Congress also granted in 1892 an additional tract of 680 acres, making the total area of the Reservation about 2,581 acres.
The Observatory consists of a Main Building, containing computing rooms, library (of 3,000 books and 3,300 pamphlets), and the domes of the 36-inch equatorial and the 12-inch equatorial: and Detached Buildings to shelter the
Meridian Circle, the Transit, the Horizontal Photo-Heliograph, the portable Equatorial, and the CROCKER Photographic Telescope. On the grounds are dwelling houses for the astronomers, students, and employés, and shops for the workmen. The Observatory is fully provided with instruments, some of which are enumerated below:
36-inch Equatorial; objective by ALVAN CLARK and Sons, mounting by WARNER and SWASEY. This instrument has also a photographic corrector of 33 inches, figured by Mr. ALVAN G. CLARK.
12-inch Equatorial; by ALVAN CLARK and Sons.
64-inch Equatorial; objective by ALVAN CLARK and Sons, mounting by WARNER and SWASEY.
64-inch Meridian Circle; objective by ALVAN CLARK and Sons, mounting by REPSOLD.
4-inch Transit; objective by ALVAN CLARK and Sons, mounting by FAUTH & Co.
4-inch Comet-seeker; by ALVAN CLARK and Sons.
5-inch Horizontal Photo-Heliograph; by ALVAN CLARK and Sons.
CROCKER Photographic Telescope; objective by WILLARD, refigured by J. A. BRASHEAR, who provided the mounting also.
A Spectroscope, specially adapted for photography, is now in process of construction. It is the gift of Hon. D. O. MILLS to the Observatory.
There are, besides, many minor pieces of astronomical, physical, meteorological, and photographic apparatus, including spectroscopes, photometers, seismometers, micrometers, clocks, chronographs, etc.
REGULATIONS REGARDING STUDENTS AT THE OBSERVATORY.
The Regents of the University have established the following regulations: "The regular course of undergraduate work in astronomy in the University will be given in part in the Colleges of Sciences at Berkeley, and the remainder at the Lick Observatory. Students who are graduates of the University of California, or of a university or college of like standing, will also be received at the Lick Observatory to pursue a higher course of instruction in astronomy, provided that, after examination, they show themselves competent. Such students may become candidates for the higher degrees of the University in the ordinary manner, or they may be received as special students merely. Quarters at Mt. Hamilton may be assigned to them during that portion of the year occupied in their work with the instruments, and in return for such quarters they will be required to execute such computations as are assigned to them." [Order of the Board of Regents, March 13, 1888.]
"So many graduate students as can be furnished accommodations at Mt. Hamilton without expense to the University, may pursue astronomical studies with the Director at the Lick Observatory. Such graduate students must be either candidates for the higher degrees of the University, in the ordinary manner, or special students admitted with the consent of the President of the University and the Director of the Observatory. Such candidates for higher degrees shall spend at least one year in their studies at Berkeley." [Orders of the Board of Regents, January 8, 1889, and May 12, 1892.]
At present, all undergraduate instruction in astronomy is given at Berkeley, and the courses there are so arranged as to lead directly to graduate work at Mt. Hamilton. Application for admission to graduate courses at the Observatory may be made at any time to the Recorder of the University at Berkeley; and students will be admitted on the recommendation of the Director, approved by the President of the University. Admission is ordinarily granted to graduates of the University of California, and also to graduates of other colleges and scientific schools of good standing who present satisfactory evidence of character and qualifications. Other persons of suitable age and attainments may also be admitted.
Students at the Lick Observatory may either be: (a) Candidates for one of the higher degrees of the University, or (b) Special students. The higher degrees offered are Master of Arts, Master of Science, and Doctor of Philosophy. The conditions upon which they are granted are given in this Register, pages 127 and 128, except that all candidates for a Master's degree must reside at Mt. Hamilton* at least four months, and all candidates for a Doctor's degree at least eight months. It is expected that students will choose their periods of residence at the Observatory in the months June to November. In certain cases the requirement of Latin of candidates for the Doctor's degree may be remitted by the proper authority. In all cases a good reading knowledge of French and German will be required of such candidates. Particular attention is called to the fact that the higher degrees of the University are not given for mere faithfulness in the performance of allotted tasks, but that power to do original work (as exhibited in a thesis to be submitted before final examination, and in other ways) must be shown.
Special students are received (usually during the favorable observing weather, June to November), and every facility, consistent with the scientific work of the establishment, will be given to them. They will be required to follow out some line of work, to the satisfaction of the Director, and they will usually be assigned as assistants to some one of the Astronomers.
HEARST FELLOWSHIPS IN ASTRONOMY.
Mrs. PHEBE A. HEARST has provided a fund to be used in aid of scientific work at the Lick Observatory. A portion of this fund may be set aside for the purpose of defraying a part of the expenses of such advanced students as may be appointed to be Hearst Fellows in Astronomy by the Board of Regents on the recommendation of the President of the University and of the Director of the Observatory. Such recommendations will not be made except of students who have already made decided progress in their work; and in general, candidates for the higher degrees of the University will be preferred.
Residence at Mt. Hamilton is residence at the University, in the sense in which that is required of candidates for the higher degrees.
QUARTERS FOR STUDENTS.
Comfortable quarters (unfurnished) are allotted to all students at the Observatory. A kitchen and dining-room (partly furnished) are also provided for the common use of students, who must make their own arrangements for board and service. The cost per month to each student need not exceed $30. No charges or fees of any sort, for instruction, are required from students in the University. All injuries to instruments or apparatus must be made good at the student's expense, and students are expected to provide the larger part of the chemicals used in their practice of photography. Each student should bring with him the furniture of his bed, etc., and should also provide himself with text-books which are constantly wanted, as YOUNG'S General Astronomy, CAMPBELL's Practical Astronomy, BRUENNOW's Lehrbuch der Sphaerischen Astronomie or CHAUVENET's Spherical and Practical Astronomy, OPPOLZER's Bahnbestimmung or WATSON's Theoretical Astronomy, HUSSEY'S Logarithmic Tables (or any other good five-place tables), CRELLE'S Rechentafeln, etc.
Intending students will do well to communicate with the Director of the Observatory before making their formal applications for admission to the Recorder. The Post Office address is Mt. Hamilton, Santa Clara County, California.
ADMISSION OF VISITORS TO THE OBSERVATORY.
The Observatory buildings will be open to visitors during office hours every day in the year. For the present, visitors will be admitted to look through the great telescope every Saturday night, between the hours of 7 and 10, and at that time only. Whenever the work of the Observatory will admit of it, other telescopes will also be put at the disposition of visitors on Saturdays, between the same hours. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific holds its summer meetings in the library of the Lick Observatory.
Students of the University of California who visit Mt. Hamilton are requested to make themselves known, in order that they may be given admission to all parts of the Observatory.