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12. Have you a playground in connection with your church or parochial school? Approximate number of
speaking children patronizing it
Total number patronizing it
Remarks and suggestions: Is there a gymnasium connected with
the playground? 13. Organizations reaching your people to any extent with which you maintain
(a) Community centers.
QUESTIONNAIRE TO LIBRARIES.
1. Xame and address of the library or libraries with which you are connected :
2. Maintained by? (City or organization.) 3. Give the days and hours on which it is open. 4. Give an estimate of the number of immigrant patrons of your library:
5. What is the total number of books?..
ForeignEnglish---6. Give an estimate of the number of books circulated among immigrants: Foreign
English 7. How many librarians and assistants?8. Is the number of foreign language books in your library in keeping with
the foreign language speaking population of your community?..
9. Are there any branches or stations connected with your library? If so,
give names and addresses..
NOTE.—Fill out separate questionnaire for each branch and station. 10. Have you any special provisions for assisting immigrants-open-shelf book
sections containing literature adapted to the needs and interests of immigrants, foreign language or bi-lingual explanations, attendants understanding the special needs of immigrants and knowing the languages
chiefly spoken in your community?----11. Do you conduct any extension activities which include the participation of
immigrants--story hours, lectures, etc?-----12. Have you any special facilities for Americanization workers-up-to-date
bibliographies, reference works on immigration and Americanization, files of latest newspapers, clippings, etc., arranged on special open-shelf
section 13. If your library does not come under the city library system, state whether
you maintain any cooperation; and, if so, what, with the city, county, or State library authorities.
Further remarks and suggestions,
1. Address of reading room (or reading rooms) with which you are
nected.-----2. Maintained by? (City or organization). 3. Give the days and hours on which it is open. 4. Give an estimate of the number of immigrant patrons of your reading
5. What is the total number of newspapers and periodicals..
foreign which are read to any extent in your community. 6. What are the newspapers and periodicals (list) which appear to be most
in demand by your patrons: Foreign.--
English. 7. How many attendants.. 8. Is the number of foreign language newspapers and periodicals in your
reading room adequate for the foreign-language speaking population of
your community?---9. Have you any special provisions for aiding immigrants—foreign language
or bi-lingual explanations, attendants understanding the languages
chiefly spoken in your community, etc.?----10. Have you any special facilities for Americanization workers-up-to-date
bibliographies, files of latest clippings, etc. ?---
EDUCATIONAL PHASES OF THE PROBLEM.
Americanization is as broad as life itself. It is weaving into the warp and woof of the life of the community those who come to make it their home. In such assimilation education in English is, of course, the first step.
While, theoretically, it may be conceded that a foreigner may become a good American in spirit without knowing our language, it is quite generally granteil that, if there is to be a community of interest, there must be a common language for conveying thought.'
LEARNING THE LANGUAGE.
There is no one thing so supremely essential in a Government such as ours, where decisions of such importance must be made by public opinion, as that every man and woman and child shall know one tongue that each may speak to every other and that all shall be informed.
There can be national unity neither in ideals nor in purpose unless there is some common method of communication through which may be conveyed the thought of the Nation. All Americans must be taught to read and write and think in one language; that is a primary condition to that growth which all nations expect in a government of us, and which we demand of ourselves.”
The public schools must teach English, and the work of the schools must be done in English. In this country we have established and we maintain public schools in all of the States in order, first, that children may be prepared for life by an education which will enable them to make a living, and for intelligent living, and for the duties and responsibilities of citizenship, and, secondly, that the State and Nation may be well served by them.
We compel parents and guardians to send their children to school in order that the State may not be cheated out of that which it is preparing to get. In doing this we must require that the schools to which children are permitted to go in lieu of attendance at the public schools shall teach the things which the public schools are teaching. In other words, that they shall all teach English; that the work of the school shall be conducted in English, so that the children growing to manhood and womanhood may have a familiar knowledge of this language.
The Constitution of the United States specifically reserves to the States all rights which are not definitely given to the Federal Government. Education, not being specifically intrusted to the Government at Washington, is therefore left to the States. All laws regulating education must consequently emanate from the State legislatures and not from the Congress.
1 H. FI. Goldberger, in Conference Proceedings. · Franklin K. Lane. 3 P. P. Claxton, in Conference Proceedings.
Community workers should therefore place before the legislatures of their States any need for new legislation regarding the conduct of the schools. The Federal Government can only suggest. The position taken by the United States Bureau of Education, as outlined above by Commissioner Claxton, is that English must be the primary language of all schools public and private; that the administration of the schools shall be in English; that such foreign languages as are taught shall be taught merely as parts of the course of study and confined to their regular class periods. Says Dr. Claxton further:
This does not mean that people are to forget their own language. The Bureau of Education has no sympathy with any policy that would limit knowledge in any direction. It does mean, however, that all shall know the English language, shall be able to understand it, to speak it, to write it, to express themselves easily in it.
What foreign languages shall be taught must necessarily be decided by each community and State for itself. Workers everywhere can render no better service than to see that the educational authorities of their city, county, and State enact regulations which will conform to the position taken by the Federal Bureau of Education.
Both policy and justice require that there be no compulsory educitcation of adults in America. It is our task rather to create in the hearts and minds of our new citizens an earnest desire to equip themselves with the language of their new land. Through all of the agencies at hand we must work skillfully to demonstrate to the nonEnglish speaking the great advantages of reading and writing and speaking the language of America. Then we must make so easily available to everyone the facilities for learning English that it will be within the power of every person to secure such an education if he desire it.
The first essential in teaching English is a teacher. The rapid disintegration of classes of the foreign born in the past can be traced in nearly every case to the teacher who did not understand her problem. It has been the natural thing to do to place in charge of classes of the foreign born regular teachers of the public school. It has unfortunately not been generally recognized that the teaching of a child has little relation to the teaching of a grown man and woman, and that the methods and materials used for children will drive away rather than hold the interest of adults.
It is useless to form a class of foreign-born people until there is first available a teacher who has made a study of the task of teaching the non-English speaking. Such a teacher should by all means take a course in this science in some of the normal schools or colleges which are now offering such instruction. Failing in this, he or she should at least make a personal study of the subject. The books prepared for the Bureau of Education by Messrs. Goldberger and Mahoney should be carefully studied, together with some of the number of good textbooks which are now available.
THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS.
Education is a public responsibility and a public function. The educational authorities in relatively but a few of the many communities of the country have as yet met their responsibility and provided classes at such times and places that foreign-born adults may attend them. Community workers should, therefore, bend their energies to arousing a public sentiment that will enable their authorities to meet this problem. This requires that funds shall be provided. This in turn necessitates that the people shall be taught that the education of those adults who are either illiterate or unable to use the English language is a public duty equally with that of educating the children. This task constitutes a program in itself. Campaign for night schools, for schools in industries, or wherever men can be brought together. Arouse your community to its duty. Have adequate funds provided. Get behind your superintendent of schools and support him in his desire to educate the illiterate adults of your community.
The responsibility for this task should be placed definitely upon the shoulders of the public-school system. If they can not be aroused or enabled to undertake the work, provide the classes under other auspices, but do not cease your efforts until the educational authorities finally meet their responsibility.
Classes may be formed in industries, during or after working hours, in the public schools, either in daytime or night, in halls, lodges, stores, homes, churches, or wherever a group can be brought together of such a minimum number as may be decided upon. The classes being formed and some one made responsible for maintaining the attendance and caring for the physical equipment, the publicschool authorities should furnish the necessary teacher. Thus the school system becomes the hub around which all of the agencies of the community may work. This, it is generally acknowledged, is the ideal method of meeting the problem. But until the publicschool system can be empowered or awakened the need must be met in such ways as can be provided.
Somewhere in every community can surely be found some person who is willing to volunteer for this patriotic service. It may be some woman of human understanding who taught school before she was married and who can spare a few hours a week now. Wherever