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CHIVA'SSO, a small city of Piedmont, Northern | they are held in the utmost contempt and detestItaly, situated in a fertile plain on the left bank of ation by their peasant neighbours, who are often the Po, about 15 miles north-east of Turin. It was indolent and destitute. They are looked upon as formerly a place of considerable military importance, covetous and malicious, and scarcely would the but its fortifications were destroyed in 1804 by the daughter of a small farmer, or well-to-do dayFrench. The lampreys of C. are celebrated through- labourer, become the wife of one of them, so that out Piedmont. It has manufactures of bricks, they mostly marry among themselves. From time earthenware, soap, &c., and a trade in the agricul- immemorial, the C. and B. have been field-labourers, tural produce of the district. Pop. 4800. cattle-dealers, butchers, &c. Many of them are very good-looking. The young women are handsome, See clear-complexioned, with large black eyes. Michel, Histoire des Races Maudites de la France et de l'Espagne (2 vols. Par. 1847).

CHIVE, or CIVE (Allium schoenoprasum), a plant of the same genus with the leek and onion (see ALLIUM), a perennial, 1 foot in height, with very small, flat, clustered bulbs, increasing by its bulbs so as to form a sort of turf. The leaves are tubular, cylindrical-tapering, radical, nearly as long as the almost leafless flowering-stem, which is terminated by a hemispherical, many flowered, not bulbiferous umbel of bluish red, or, more rarely, flesh-coloured flowers. The stamens are included within the perianth. This rather pretty little plant grows wild on the banks of rivers, and in marshy or occasionally flooded places in the middle latitudes of Europe and Asia. It is a rare native of Britain. In some of the mountainous districts of Europe a variety is found, larger and stronger in all its parts, and with flowering-stems more leafy. Chives-the name is generally used in the plural-are commonly cultivated in kitchen-gardens, often as an edging for plots, and are used for flavouring soups and dishes. Their properties are very similar to those of the onion. The part used is the young leaves, which bear repeated cuttings in the season.

CHIZEROTS AND BURINS form one of those peculiar races in France that live isolated in the midst of the rest of the population, and are despised and hated by their neighbours. They live in the arrondissement of Bourg-en-Bresse, in the department of Ain; and the communes of Sermoyer, Arbigny, Boz, and Ozan belong to them. According to tradition, they are descended from the Saracens. Although industrious and prosperous,

CHLADNI, ERNST FLORENS FRIEDRICH, founder of the science of acoustics, was born at Wittenberg, November 30, 1756. He studied law in his native place, and also in Leipsic, where, in 1782, he was made Doctor of Laws. C. ultimately abandoned juridical studies altogether, devoted his mind to natural science, and, being acquainted with music, was led to observe that the laws of sound were by no means so well established as those of other branches of physics. He therefore began to apply his knowledge of mathematics and physics to acoustics, and travelled for ten years (after 1802) through Germany, Holland, France, Italy, Russia, and Denmark, giving lectures on the subject, which were very successful. He died in Breslau, April 3, 1827.-C.'s writings include, Discoveries concerning the Theory of Sound (1787), Acoustics (1802), New Contributions to Acoustics (1817), and Contributions to Practical Acoustics, with _Remarks on the making of Instruments (1822). C. also wrote several essays on meteoric stones.

CHLAMYPHORUS (Gr. chlamys-bearing; chlamys, a soldier's cloak), a very remarkable genus of mammalia of the order Edentata, ranked by naturalists in the same family with the armadillos, but differing in important respects from them, and from all other known quadrupeds. Only one species is known, C. truncatus, five or six inches long, a

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